Peppermint: biological characteristics, cultivation, use in medicine, in cosmetics and in cooking

Peppermint: biological characteristics, cultivation, use in medicine, in cosmetics and in cooking

A gift from a fairy nymph ...

Mint - a valuable essential oil culture that has found wide application in medicine and cooking. Botanists have identified 22 species of mint in the domestic flora. Various mint are widely and abundantly found in the temperate zone of the Old and New Worlds.

In Russian classics, field mint is repeatedly sung - a close relative of peppermint. Wild mint can most often be found on the banks of a river or lake, in a swampy forest and in the river bank, in a floodplain meadow, along ditches, in weedy areas.

Mint blooms from July to September with lilac crowded flowers. In folk dialects, field mint was known in the Arkhangelsk region as glushak, in the Vologda region - fruit (it rejuvenated stale apples), in Vyatchina - perekop. They also called her bezhava, dragolyub, a diaper (applied against coughing and suffocation). Its origin is not exactly known.

In Russian forbs, vigorous bushes of wild mint are visible from May to September - the entire long period of growth and development of this wonderful plant.


Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is called English mint, cold mint, chill. China and Japan are considered the birthplace of mint. Remnants of mint have been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 1200-600 BC. BC e. The ancient Greeks believed that every forest stream, every lawn has its own deity, and one of them is Menta (Mint).

The Latin name of mint - Mentha is given to a part of the fabulous nymph - the patroness of meadows, gorges, rivers and springs. According to legend, the sorceress Proserpine turned this mythical creature into a plant. Perhaps mint is a native of those places.

Excursion into history

For its fragrant smell, mint in ancient times enjoyed great respect. She was credited with the ability to bring a good mood. That is why the Roman patricians, before meeting guests, forced their servants to rub tables with this fragrant grass, and spray the halls with mint water. Ancient scientists claimed that the plant has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the brain.

The famous Roman historian Pliny the Elder constantly wore a wreath woven from fresh mint on his head, and advised his students to do the same. They were supposed to wear mint wreaths, since the scent herb was believed to stimulate mental energy. This, to put it mildly, a strange belief persisted until the Middle Ages, when students imitating the ancients placed mint wreaths on their heads, especially on the days of exam debates.

The first written news about this fragrant herb is found in ancient Russian texts for 1119. In Russia, in the old days, mint was added to a snuff box with snuff, and mint kvass was drunk for appetite before dinner. Menthol soothes pain, so peppermint drops were taken for toothache and stomach pain. They used to bathe in mint broth before scrofulous children. Mint poultices were widely used.

There is evidence that Evdokia Lopukhina loved to steam with brooms, to which she added mint sprigs. It seems that the plant cannot be found with the scent of mint. And they recognize her no longer by her appearance, but by her smell.It is worth sniffing a shaggy twig or rubbing just one leaf of it in the palm of your hand, as the pleasant smell characteristic of this plant will overwhelm you with both spice and fragrance, and some slight chill that will not be forgotten for a long time. Every leaf is a box of fragrances, always full of charm and charm.

Such a fact is remarkable in the biography of mint. It was with the help of mint that the English scientist Joseph Priestley discovered that plants emit a gas that is so necessary for humans and animals for their life - oxygen. The natural scientist set up a witty experiment. He took two identical glass jars. Under one of them, he placed a bunch of mint and mice, under the other - some mice. The mice placed with the plants turned out to be alive on the eighth day, and those that were alone died on the second day.

Peppermint is not found wild. Now, in abandoned gardens, it can be found in a feral state.

This is an old cultivated plant. It has long been grown in flower beds and vegetable gardens. But some three hundred years ago it was impossible to meet in nature. Some researchers call England the birthplace of peppermint, in the old days it was called English. It was obtained there in the 17th century by crossing two wild forms (watermint and spearmint). It was called pepper.

The main producers of peppermint are England and North America. It is also cultivated in France, Italy, Greece, Spain, North Africa, Central Europe and the CIS countries. Peppermint has an extremely strong aroma and a cooling taste. This property formed the basis of her nickname - chill.

The value of mint

For the burning taste of the leaves, it is called pepper. Mint leaves contain up to 2.5% essential oil. The whole plant is very aromatic, since the essential oil of peppermint contains up to 50-90% menthol and its esters, fellandrene, pinene, yasmon, piperitone, mentofuran, tannic acids and others, as well as tannins, flavonoids. Triterpenes, carotene, hesperidin, betaine are found in mint leaves. Contains trace elements: copper, manganese, strontium and others. Menthol has a disinfectant effect, promotes digestion, stimulates appetite. It is used for asthma, flatulence, disorders of the digestive tract, stomach diseases, neurosis, eczema, hypertension.

Essential oil is extracted from mint, which is used for medicinal and household needs. In the perfumery and cosmetology industry, it is irreplaceable. Mint powders and pastes, a number of varieties of scented soaps also owe their refreshing power to this herb. A lot of it is used to flavor syrups, tinctures, vodkas and liqueurs, in confectionery - to bake gingerbread. Neither give nor take, mint is a heroic essential oil culture.

Mint is a valuable nectar plant and from this point of view is of interest to beekeepers. On a summer morning in the mint thickets, you can hear the calm hum of bees. Mint honey is transparent, amber, pleasant, refreshing taste. The only pity is that its collection from this plant is small.

Field mint, like its other relatives, is not suitable for fodder for livestock. Excessive amounts of mint in hay spoils it, impairs its nutritional value. From such hay, milk yield falls, milk loses its ability to coagulate.

Biological features of mint

The rhizome of this fragrant grass is creeping - there is no need to go deep on damp soils. Its stem is low, open, can reach a length of up to 1 m, with pubescent shoots. Mint leaves are round, ovoid or oblong with a pointed tip. Their edges are serrated. On the front and bottom side, leaf blades are pubescent, less often glabrous with short petioles.

Of all the plants belonging to the labiate family, mint has the most uncomplicated flowers. In peppermint, these flowers are small with bell-shaped cups, reddish-purple hairy and collected in round half-whorls, forming spike-shaped inflorescences.

Mint blooms from June to September.Mint is pollinated by flies and beetles.

Growing mint

The mint area should be well lit. It is not demanding on the soil, but its habitat should be moist, even damp.

Mint propagates with the help of seeds (they are small, brown, remain viable for 2-3 years) and most often vegetatively - by rooting cuttings and dividing rhizomes. The planted cuttings of creeping rhizomes are capable of forming new shoots.

The mint is harvested when the plant is in bloom. Dry in the shade and store for a long time in closed jars and boxes.

The use of mint in medicine

Mint is a valuable medicinal plant. It is used in official and traditional medicine.

In pharmacology, mint is used as a means of improving digestion, against intestinal spasm and nausea, as a choleretic agent. Peppermint oil is a part of validol, various drops, mint cakes, cough drops, tooth powders and pastes. Mint leaves are used in the form of an aqueous infusion, as a means of improving digestion, against spasms in the intestines, nausea. Mint is a part of mouth-watering teas, carminative, choleretic, gastric, diaphoretic, sedative and aromatic baths. Mint relieves heartburn and bad belching. No wonder they say that it is cold in the mouth, but warms up the intestines.

In scientific medicine peppermint is used in the form of menthol preparation, which is prepared from essential oil, as well as in the form of tincture and mint water (for rinsing). In order to improve digestion, plant leaves are consumed. Peppermint oil is a part of medicines with antiseptic, anticonvulsant and tonic properties.

In folk medicine peppermint is widely used. It is effective as a sedative for heart and nervous diseases, as a tonic for a breakdown, it is used for cholera, rheumatism, toothache, as a means of regulating the gastrointestinal tract. This plant is used as an auxiliary choleretic agent. With a decoction of mint, diarrhea was relieved.

Mint is used for hemorrhoids, female diseases, with severe headache as a fast-acting external agent (in the form of fresh leaves). Mint is used for rickets, scrofula (in the form of a tincture, juice or decoction for baths).

For bleeding from the lungs, a decoction of mint is useful, and for bloody vomiting, a decoction in vinegar.

Bulgarian doctors with a heavy odor from the mouth recommend rinsing your mouth with an infusion of mint in red wine and at the same time taking this infusion inside one tablespoon 2-3 times a day.

The use of mint in cosmetics

Peppermint has long been used for cosmetic purposes. It is used for soothing and anti-inflammatory masks. A tablespoon of mint is brewed with a glass of boiling water, covered with a lid, insisted for half an hour and filtered. The resulting infusion is used to wipe the inflamed areas.

For sagging skin, a hot herbal compress from a mixture of peppermint, linden blossom in equal proportions is useful. A tablespoon of raw materials is brewed with a glass of boiling water, insisted and filtered. The moistened napkin is lightly wrung out and applied to the face. Keep the compress for 8-10 minutes, soaking the cloth in the hot broth.

To refresh a tired face, make a contrasting compress of mint and cold water. In hot mint broth, wet a napkin and keep it on your face for 2-3 minutes, then apply a napkin soaked in cold water. The procedure is repeated 2-3 times.

For dry skin of the face, make a mask of brewed dry mint (2 tablespoons of chopped herbs, pour 50 g of water and heat). Apply the mask to a clean face and keep for 15-20 minutes.

For acne prone skin, it is good to make lotions from infusion of mint, horsetail, yarrow and sage in equal proportions. Pour one tablespoon of the mixture with a glass of boiling water, let it brew and strain. Apply the liquid to a clean face with a cotton swab.

The use of mint in cooking

As a spice, mint gives our food a refreshing, palatable aroma that induces an appetite. Especially often its greens are used in national Ukrainian, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani dishes.

Mint leaves are an excellent spice to the table. Young leaves of peppermint are eaten in salads, okroshka and as a spice. A pinch of chopped or frayed aromatic herbs will add a refreshing taste to any dish - meat, fish, flour, vegetable, fruit. Bread kvass infused with mint is delicious!

Peppermint occupies a special place in English cuisine when preparing sauces for lamb meat. In American cuisine, it is used to improve the taste, or rather, the aroma of mixed drinks made from tomato juice and various fruit and vegetable salads. In Arabic, Spanish cuisine, mint is served on the table as a spicy herb. In France and Italy, it is added to various spice mixtures.

In household use, fresh and dried mint leaves are used. The dried leaves should be fresh, beautiful green.

Mint leaves enhance the flavor of roasts, roast lamb and chicken. It is added to stews, carrots, peas, beans and beans, and leeks. In a small amount, fresh herbs can be used as a flavoring additive in vegetable soups, borscht, marinades for meat, fish, they also put fragrant herbs together with cheese in dumplings and various other cheese dishes.

Peppermint is also widely used in confectionery. For example, almost everyone knows the aroma of mint gingerbread from childhood.

Valentina Perezhogina,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Medicinal plants of the Rostov region

Medicinal plants of the Rostov region

"Health is only one, but thousands of diseases"

Our Don region is rich in medicinal plants. They are used to treat people, animals and plants themselves. Almost half of the medicines are of herbal origin.

It has long been known that medicinal plants, to which our body is adapted, are very effective and safe for humans! After all, there were not even pills and similar drugs when a person began to be treated with herbs. Many experts argue that natural compounds are more active than antibiotics, which are often harmful to the body. Knowledge and proper use can effectively improve your health with the help of plants. Many ancient treatises describe healing methods with herbs.

The first state institution in Russia - the Apothecary hut - was opened in 1581 during the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. The pharmacy hut was located in the Kremlin, near the Chudov Monastery. Each season, a list of plants was drawn up that needed to be harvested. So, it was prescribed to collect St. John's wort, dry it and grind it into flour. Near Yaroslavl, they gathered juniper berries, and valerian - "cat's grass" - was brought from near Ryazan.

Under Peter I, “pharmaceutical gardens” were created, medicinal plants were grown on plantations. Such a "vegetable garden" was founded on the Aptekarsky Island in St. Petersburg, where the world famous botanical garden, museum and greenhouses are now located.

Plants contain active healing biological complexes and medicines created by nature itself. We cannot imagine how much useful for our body is contained in medicinal herbs: St. John's wort, sage, hawthorn, calendula, chamomile and many others. Regularly applying herbal infusions, you can forget about stomach problems, improve heart function, and remove toxins from the body. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the advisability of treating chronic diseases with the help of natural remedies, and not with synthesized antibiotics, which treat one thing and cripple the other. Even with prolonged use, medicinal herbs will not harm the patient. The systematic use of medicinal herbs and plants will cleanse the body of toxins.

Poor ecology, a polluted atmosphere, heavy loads, overwork, the use of antibiotics, the use of alcohol and nicotine - all this leads to a decrease in immunity and the appearance of chronic diseases. The most effective cleansing of the body can be carried out only with natural herbal remedies, which are much more effective than tablets. However, it should be remembered that medicinal herbs do not act "suddenly". Plants have a cumulative effect, which manifests itself with proper systematic use. Therefore, be patient, attentive and consistent with herbal remedies.

Poisonous plants are also found among the diverse vegetation of meadows and forests. Sometimes collectors are stumped. Many people know that there are very poisonous plants, and they are afraid of accidentally collecting them. Indeed, in our area, both spotted hemlock (speckled) and poisonous milestones, cicuta, grow, which have acquired ill-fame for themselves. The juice of one of these plants (it is not known exactly) was executed - poisoned - by the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates.

pharmaceutical camomile Latin name: Matricaria recutita L. Family: Asteraceae (Asteraceae).

The composition of chamomile is very rich, minerals, vitamin C, vitamin B4, carotene, nicotinic, salicylic, malic and other complex organic acids, essential oils, flavonoids, bitterness, mucus, and gums are found in its inflorescences.

Thanks to the combination of all the components, chamomile medicinal has the following medicinal properties:

Delicious homemade dishes with beans

This borscht is very tasty and loved by many. It is prepared in pork broth, chicken, beef. In fasting, they cook "empty borscht", lean without meat.

Soak selected beans so that they swell, acquire softness, their original size. It doesn't matter if you can use large or small, white or colored.

The broth should languish, gurgle slightly, then it will turn out transparent, and if you cook the meat together with a large onion, lavrushka, black and allspice, you will get delicious food!

When the broth is ready, add the main ingredient and cook until almost cooked through. But do not overcook, otherwise the thin skin will flake off.

Delicious borscht is thick, rich, so don't skimp on potatoes and carrots. Grate carrots or cut with potatoes. When the potatoes are tender, add the chopped cabbage and bell peppers. There is never a lot of it, do not be greedy. If you cook borscht in the summer, season it with fresh tomatoes, slightly pass them, tomato paste, tomato juice, homemade fruit drink will do. And, of course, don't forget about greens: parsley, dill, green onions. Borscht is served directly from the oven, let it brew for a couple of hours - whoever likes it. Delicious, nutritious hot and cold.

In this article, we tried to acquaint the reader with the basic nuances of growing beans, planting them in open ground.

How to grow garden herbs?

Planting a herb garden is easy. Herbs can be sown or planted in a designated area or among other plants. You can grow them from seeds or buy seedlings. If there is no garden, a few pots or one large container is sufficient. For the winter, the pot can be moved from the balcony to the room.

Classification of herbs

Herbs are divided into 2 groups depending on their cold hardiness.


From northern countries with a temperate climate originate:

  • dill,
  • parsley,
  • melisa,
  • lovage
  • mint,
  • chervil.

They like moist soil, high humus content. They should not grow in sunny positions, they like partial shade. These plants tolerate rainy summers well. They should not be sown or planted immediately after fertilizing the soil.

Melissa, mint or lovage should be grown in a separate bed, because the bushes grow quite quickly. They can harm other plants with less intensive growth.Their tall shoots need to be controlled.


From the southern countries, the following garden herbs got to our beds:

  • thyme,
  • basil,
  • sage,
  • marjoram,
  • oregano,
  • savory,
  • rosemary.

These plants thrive on light, sandy, limestone soil, poor in nutrients and fairly dry. They love warmth and sun. An exception is basil, which, in addition to the sun, also loves moisture.

Most Mediterranean herbs are perennials or shrubs. They will not thrive in heavy, clayey, moist soil. They like hot walls or stone gardens.

Grasses originating from southern Europe can tolerate mid-zone winters well, provided they grow on light, dry soil. You only need to cover them to prevent freezing of the root system. At the end of February, at the latest at the beginning of March, all grasses must be trimmed. This leads to a strong multiplication of plants and the growth of new shoots.

Only the rosemary is best to dig up. Rosemary overwinters in a pot in a cool, bright room. It is planted in open ground at the end of April.

Features of growing different plants

When planning your beds, you should consider which herbs can be planted nearby. Herbs with similar growing requirements can be planted close by. Then the care will be much easier, the plants will grow well. If the herb garden is poorly planned or herbs are planted in the wrong place, the plants will grow poorly and hurt. You need to carefully select the types of crops, adapting them to the conditions prevailing in the garden.

Herbs, depending on their resistance to climatic conditions, are divided into 3 main groups:

  1. Perennial grasses - winter in the soil and are resistant to weather conditions prevailing in our country. These include:
    • peppermint,
    • melisa,
    • green onions,
    • oregano,
    • tarragon,
    • thyme.
  1. Perennial grasses are less resistant to low temperatures and require warm, sheltered locations. Most of them need winter shelter or hibernation in a pot in a cool room, they can freeze in the open field. These include mainly Mediterranean and southern herbs that winter in the room:
    • thyme,
    • medicinal sage,
    • medicinal lavender,
    • medicinal hyssop,
    • lovage
    • savory,
    • thyme,
    • rosemary,
    • noble laurel (bay leaf).
  1. Annual grasses, which, in principle, do not hibernate in the ground, so they should be sown every year after passing the danger of spring frost (after May 15). These include:
    • basil,
    • marjoram (annual or cultivated as an annual plant),
    • dill.

What herbs can be planted nearby?

It is necessary to check if the plants have similar habitat requirements, then they can be grown nearby. Most of the popular Mediterranean herbs (medicinal lavender, rosemary, thyme, savory, medicinal sage) love sun, warmth and prefer light, permeable, not very fertile substrates, usually with a neutral or alkaline pH (preferably with added calcium). They can be planted side by side, but for cultivation it is necessary to allocate warm, well warmed up, relatively dry soil and sunny places protected from the wind.

The following grasses are much more demanding on fertility, requiring humus and moist soils:

  • mint,
  • basil,
  • melisa,
  • parsley.

These species will not thrive next to grasses that prefer dry and permeable soils.

An important factor when planning grass beds is the height and growth pattern of individual plants:

  • some herbs grow strongly and are quite spreading (peppermint), occupy the space of weaker plants
  • others reach considerable heights (sage), shading low plants.

Therefore, plants should be planted in floors:

  • in the center or behind - the highest (sage, rosemary, lemon balm)
  • in the middle - low (thyme, marjoram, basil, onions on a feather)
  • in front - the lowest (lemon-scented thyme).

Species with strong roots (peppermint) are best grown in a large pot that will prevent the roots from occupying the surrounding area.

When planning your planting, remember that some herbs don't like each other, so it's best not to plant them next to each other. For example - marjoram and basil.

Herbs can be grown next to vegetables, many of them have a beneficial effect on their growth and development, and protect against pest attacks. For example:

  • sage should be planted next to beans, carrots
  • basil - next to the cucumber.


During the period of intensive growth, perennial grasses should be fed with natural fertilizers, for example, vermicompost. Annual plants have enough nutrients in the garden soil.


Most perennials tolerate frost well. In evergreen species (sage), the stems sometimes die off - in the spring it is enough to cut them off and they will grow back. Frost-sensitive herbs (tarragon) are covered with straw.

When to Harvest?

Usually, herbs are torn regularly as needed, when they are needed for meals. However, the most valuable ingredients are found in their leaves prior to flowering. Leaves harvested in the morning have the strongest aroma. It is good to prune or pinch off the tops of the grasses, so they bush better. This applies to basil, mint. Marjoram is harvested by pruning the shoots after the first flower buds appear, and then it dries up.

A separate group is made up of herbs that give seeds - dill, coriander, cumin, anise. They are mainly harvested when the seeds are ripe, usually in July-August. However, you can pick the greens up to this point, as needed.

Some herbs can be eaten fresh, others should be properly dried and cooked. The herbs are dried in a dry, ventilated, shaded place. The best temperature for drying is 25 ° C. Dried herbs are stored in dark, hermetically sealed containers or jars. It is best to harvest and dry the herbs every year, although many can be stored for up to 3 years.

Spicy plants, in addition to their taste and healing properties, have other advantages - these are beautiful decorative species. Many herbs are wonderful plants, with a variety of shapes, growths, textures and colors (one species has varieties with different leaf colors). During the flowering period, they attract dozens of colorful butterflies and other insects. It is worth combining the beauty of herbs with their usefulness.

Not sure which crops to give preference to: decorative or edible? There is an exit! Plant attractive food plants in your area. They are also very useful for human health.

Among the herbs and vegetables, you can find many specimens that will not only decorate the site, but also bring invaluable benefits to the body due to their medicinal properties. These plants have another important plus: they practically do not need to be looked after.

Names, photos and benefits of popular species

It's amazing how rich the nature of our latitudes is in wild herbs. Medicinal plants widely inhabit fields and meadows, steppe and forests, on mountain slopes and in valleys. Many of them are well known to almost everyone, others are not so popular, but are also widely used in traditional and official medicine. Below we will consider some wild herbs, their purpose and human use.

What are herbs: classification

Wild herbs are divided into several typologies:

  • by life expectancy,
  • by appointment,
  • for distribution.

Now we will consider each classification separately.

By life expectancy

According to the lifespan, wild herbs are divided into annual, biennial and perennial.

Here are examples of some of them:

  • annuals - buttercup, cornflower, ageratum, lapchatnik, dope, poppy, chamomile, and many others
  • biennials - mallow, euphorbia, sweet clover, lupine, forget-me-nots, bells and others
  • perennials - nettle, St. John's wort, cow parsnip, oregano, field mint, celandine, burdock, chicory, dandelion and so on.

Did you know? The most common living things on planet Earth are plants. There are more than 370 thousand species of them.

By appointment

Herbs are also classified according to their human use. They are divided into spicy and medicinal. Already from the names of these categories you can see what they are for and how they are used.

By distribution

The places where wild cereals grow allow them to be divided into those growing in forests, in the steppe and in the desert, in swamps and in the mountains, in meadows, in orchards and vegetable gardens.

Photos, names, benefits of wild herbs

There are a huge variety of wild plants, and almost every one of them can be found in the appropriate catalog or encyclopedia, with descriptions and photographs. We will also tell you about some of the herbs common in our territory, presenting their photos, a brief description and a positive effect on human health.

Did you know? Roasted dandelion roots are used as a substitute for coffee, and young leaves are fermented or pickled like cabbage in the cooking of some peoples. In addition, dandelion flower wine has long been produced in England.


Dandelion medicinal (in Latin - Taraxacum Officinale) has unique healing properties. It is rich in vitamins A and C, iron and calcium, and is a good detoxifier. Roots and leaves are rich in bitter glycosides, acids, oils, choline, asparagine. Dandelion is recognized as a plant capable of such effects:

  • choleretic,
  • antipyretic,
  • laxative,
  • expectorant
  • calming,
  • antispasmodic,
  • light sleeping pill.

Experimental chemical and pharmacological studies have proven that dandelion raw materials have anti-tuberculosis, antiviral, fungicidal, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic and antidiabetic properties.

In cooking, dandelion also has a well-deserved distribution: cabbage soup is cooked from it, cutlets are prepared, jam is made, and fortified spring salads are also prepared. Dandelions are excellent honey plants: the honey collected from them turns out to be golden and fragrant, with a harsh taste.

Video: the beneficial properties of dandelion

St. John's wort

St. John's wort (in Latin - Hypéricum perforátum) has beneficial ingredients that help a person maintain health. These are vitamin C, nicotinic acid, quercetin, rutin, carotene, sugars, saponins, hyperoside, tocopherol, phytoncides, essential oil, as well as bitter, tannins and resinous substances.

In pharmacology, St. John's wort is used to prepare various preparations from it:

  • antibacterial,
  • antiseptic,
  • pain relievers,
  • wound healing,
  • antirheumatic,
  • diuretics,
  • choleretic,
  • antihelminthic.

Important! St. John's wort has contraindications: it causes an increase in blood pressure, accelerates the elimination of antibiotics from organism, incompatible with antidepressants. In women who take oral contraceptives, it can reduce their effect. And men need to remember - with prolonged use, they may experience temporary impotence.

Recently, medical scientists conducted additional research, during which it was found that St. John's wort has an antidepressant effect that does not have side effects. Also, this herb is valuable because it is recommended by cosmetologists as an anti-aging, tonic, antiseborrheic agent.

Since ancient times, healers with the help of St. John's wort healed:

  • gynecological inflammation,
  • hemorrhoids,
  • headaches,
  • diseases of the liver and genitourinary system.
Video: useful properties of St. John's wort


Chicory (in Latin - Cichórium) has a rich chemical composition, due to which it normalizes the functioning of many body systems.

This plant can:

  • stimulate increased immunity,
  • heal wounds and eczema,
  • have an antitumor effect,
  • tone the body,
  • relieve fatigue,
  • cleanse blood vessels.

Chicory also has detoxifying properties: it is able to normalize metabolic processes and remove toxins. By consuming chicory, you can cleanse the kidneys and improve blood composition, speed up peristalsis, eliminate heartburn, and increase appetite. Drinks from it can replace coffee. Also, chicory is used as a relieving inflammation, antipyretic and antibacterial agent for colds. Diabetics, using this medicinal herb, can also alleviate their condition.


Stinging nettle (in Latin - Urtica urens) and Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are two types of medicinal herbs that are used in both official and folk medicine.

Nettle gained its popularity due to the following properties:

  • diuretic, Juniper, pumpkin, red clover, turmeric, larkspur, avran, red onion, butcher, fennel, Phrygian cornflower, birch, lingonberry leaves, agave are also used as a diuretic.
  • mild laxative
  • expectorant
  • anticonvulsant,
  • anti-inflammatory,
  • antiseptic,
  • pain reliever,
  • wound healing,
  • blood purifier,
  • hemostatic.
Pregnant and lactating women use nettle to improve lactation and normalize blood iron levels. Its antidiabetic effect has also been proven.

Traditional medicine uses nettle for:

  • dysentery,
  • colds
  • constipation
  • dropsy
  • diseases of the liver and bronchopulmonary system,
  • hemorrhoids
  • rheumatism,
  • gout,
  • boils,
  • acne and lichen skin lesions.
Video: useful properties of nettle


Burdock (in Latin - Arctium) is widely used in both medicines, mainly its root is used. The burdock root system is most rich in the polysaccharide inulin (about 45%), it contains tanning and essential oils, mucus, fatty substances, bitterness, resins, mineral salts, ascorbic acid, and protein.

Burdock root is used as a diuretic, diaphoretic, analgesic and choleretic agent, and it helps in the formation of pancreatic enzymes.

Also, this plant has the following effects:

  • laxative,
  • antimicrobial,
  • antiseptic,
  • antiallergic,
  • wound healing,
  • antidiabetic.


Hogweed (in Latin - Heracléum) has long been known for its healing properties. It contains furocoumarins, which have a bactericidal effect, therefore anthelmintic drugs for animals are produced from it.

For humans, hogweed remedies are effective against psoriasis. The juice of the plant is used to treat ulcers and purulent wounds, asthma and epilepsy. An anesthetic medicine is prepared from the roots for hepatic inflammation, as well as for jaundice.

Cow parsnip is used in cooking, and it is also a complete fodder crop, which is combined with others to produce silage for livestock.

The cow parsnip contains trace elements, carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins, as well as tannins, chlorophyll, carotene, essential oils. The flowers contain a lot of nectar, which the bees transform into excellent honey.

Important! It is necessary to carefully handle the cow parsnip, since its juice, getting on open areas of the body, can cause severe allergic reactions and burns, which turn into huge blisters.


Oregano, or oregano (in Latin - Oríganum vulgáre) contains flavonoids, phytoncides, bitterness, tannins, essential oil, thanks to which preparations based on it serve as anti-inflammatory and choleretic agents. Oregano is used to treat whooping cough and bronchitis, and is taken as a sedative and pain reliever.

Medicines from this herb:

  • increase appetite
  • improve intestinal motility,
  • produce a diuretic effect,
  • relieve epileptic seizures,
  • relieve cramps,
  • normalize the menstrual cycle.
Video: useful properties of oregano

Field mint

Field or meadow mint (in Latin - Mentha arvensis) contains menthol, which has mild anesthetic properties.It is also an ingredient in medicines for blood vessels and heart: Validol, Valocordin, Zelenin drops and others.

The beneficial properties of mint are very versatile:

  • mint can enhance intestinal motility, contributing to its timely emptying, limit putrefactive processes and fermentation
  • infusions are prepared from dried leaves, which are used for disorders of the nervous system and insomnia
  • mint helps relieve nausea, produces a choleretic effect, eliminates diarrhea
  • alcohol tincture and oil solution are used to reduce swelling and pain in inflammation of the respiratory system
  • antimicrobial and gum-strengthening properties of essential oil are used for the production of toothpastes and powders, as well as infusions for rinsing the mouth.

Important! You can not use mint for children under three years old. Also, do not get carried away with it for men of childbearing age, due to the fact that it can reduce libido, and women who have problems with conception, as this herb can aggravate the problem of infertility.


Common tansy (in Latin - Tanacetum vulgare) is known for having a powerful anthelmintic effect. Also, a powder is prepared from it in the form of an insecticide against insect pests. Tansy contains alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, tannins.

This plant is used for hepatitis to reduce the production of mucus that accumulates in the bile. The herb has a positive effect on the muscle tone of the stomach and intestines, enhancing secretion.

An infusion of basket inflorescences can:

  • increase the amplitude of heart contractions,
  • eliminate hypotension,
  • heal ulcers of the stomach and duodenum.

Traditional medicine uses tansy to treat:

  • enterobiasis,
  • hypoacid gastritis,
  • hepatitis A,
  • colitis,
  • ascariasis,
  • cholecystitis.
Compresses from this herb are effective for purulent wounds and gout.

Video: useful properties of tansy


Plantain (in Latin - Plantаgo). In medicine, two types of plantain are used: flea and Indian. The composition of these medicinal herbs contains a lot of ascorbic acid, phytoncides and carotene.

Alcohol and aqueous plantain leafy extracts are used to treat severe gastric and duodenal ulcers. Juice treats gastritis and enteritis, it is drunk for better digestion of food. Special studies of phytochemists have proven that plantain leaves contain elements that affect cholesterol metabolism.

An infusion of leaves is used for sputum discharge in case of:

  • bronchitis,
  • pulmonary tuberculosis,
  • bronchial asthma,
  • pleurisy,
  • catarrh of the upper respiratory tract,
  • whooping cough.

Plantain is known as an antiseptic because it can:

  • relieve inflammation,
  • heal wounds
  • anesthetize,
  • purify the blood.
Medicines prepared from the plant can destroy Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, hemolytic staphylococcus, pathogenic microbes in infected wounds.


Bitter wormwood (in Latin - Artemísia absínthium) is used in gastroenterology. Its benefits are due to active ingredients such as absintin, anabsintin, flavonoids, thujone, pinene, cadinene, bisabolone, chamazulenogen, selenene.

Wormwood leaves are rich in phytoncides, alkaloids, capillin, ascorbic acid, provitamin A, malic and succinic acids, carotene and saponins.

  • The presence of galenic substances stimulates the reflex function of the pancreas, improves the functioning of the gallbladder.
  • Terpenes relieve inflammation and are pacemakers.
  • The essential oil secreted from the plant has an exciting effect on the central nervous system.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons in the grass have a bactericidal and fungicidal effect.
  • Bitterness, which is also present, can stimulate appetite and normalize digestion.

Traditional medicine considers wormwood to be an excellent remedy for:

  • insomnia
  • ascariasis,
  • flatulence,
  • obesity,
  • migraine,
  • enterocolitis,
  • gastritis,
  • diseases of the kidneys and liver.
Video: useful properties of wormwood The plant is also useful for halitosis. On the basis of wormwood, ointments are prepared with which to treat fistulas, eye diseases, bruises and burns.

In combination with other herbs, wormwood is successfully used for:

  • pulmonary tuberculosis,
  • hypertension,
  • fever
  • edema,
  • hemorrhoids.


Horsetail (in Latin - Equisetum arvense) is rich in flavonoids, derivatives of apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, silicic acid, and tannins.

There are also oxalic, aconitic, linoleic, malic and ascorbic acids, fatty oils, alkaloids, calcium, carotene, iron, potassium, magnesium, copper and other substances. Thanks to the listed components, horsetail has the following properties:

  • cleansing,
  • anti-inflammatory,
  • antimicrobial,
  • anthelmintic,
  • diuretics,
  • antiseptic,
  • detoxification.

In medicine and cosmetology, field horsetail is used in the form of infusion, lotion and decoction. It is used while observing fasting diets in the process of losing weight. Culinary experts use young horsetail shoots by boiling or frying them and adding them to omelets and casseroles, as well as filling for pancakes and pies.

Video: useful properties of field horsetail


Quinoa (in Latin - Atriplex) is useful in the treatment of rheumatism, allows you to relieve emotional stress. Due to the large amount of rutin and potassium, it is used in cardiology and for atherosclerotic changes in the vessels.

Did you know? Since ancient times, quinoa has been used as food during war or crop failure: rye flour with ground quinoa seeds was used to make bread. Such bread, although it was not attractive in appearance and taste, still helped people to survive in times of famine.

Preparations from it are used to treat:

  • chronic and acute diseases of the lower respiratory tract,
  • stomach diseases
  • skin diseases
  • inflamed wounds.

The plant also serves as:

  • anti-inflammatory,
  • wound healing
  • cleansing,
  • diuretic,
  • expectorant
  • choleretic,
  • sedative.

Vegetarians appreciated the quinoa deservingly, because it contains a lot of protein: cabbage soup from it, as well as cutlets, soups, mashed potatoes and bread allow you to stay full for a long time.

Video: useful properties of quinoa


Celandine (in Latin - Chelidonium) has many useful components: it contains up to twenty toxic substances that destroy pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

Useful action of celandine:

  • helps with cramps,
  • relieves inflammation,
  • can relieve pain and soothe,
  • has an antitumor and bactericidal effect,
  • serves as a diuretic,
  • heals wounds
  • increases lactation in lactating women,
  • celandine medicines purify lymph from infections.
When using small doses of celandine:
  • lower blood pressure
  • heart activity slows down
  • neuroses, convulsions, paralysis, epilepsy pass
  • the work of the pancreas is getting better.

When using celandine in treatment, it is important to remember that you cannot independently exceed the dose of the prescribed amount of the drug, otherwise it will lead to dangerous side effects.

Important! It is necessary to start taking this herb with a minimum dose, gradually increasing it to the desired one.

Video: useful properties of celandine The medicinal qualities of the medicinal plants listed here have been known for a long time. They were appreciated and learned to use by our ancestors, and then these skills were passed on to descendants, from healer to healer. And now we can consider ourselves the lucky owners of this valuable knowledge.

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Why is mint dangerous in the garden

Peppermint is an excellent honey plant and has phytoncidal properties, which makes it particularly attractive to grow.
However, if you decide to plant mint in your garden, you should be aware of the serious danger that an inexperienced beginner may face.

Important! Mint tends to grow very quickly throughout the site, its root system, like a cobweb, tightens the entire space so that this perennial plant can only be removed by radical deep digging.

If you do not forget about it before planting mint, such problems can be avoided. Some gardeners advise, when planting mint in open ground, to pre-protect the area selected for it on all sides, digging deeper into sheets of slate, metal or other improvised material that prevents the spread of the plant in width.

A more effective option is to use a special container for planting mint (a flower pot, a plastic bucket or an ordinary basin), which, together with the planted mint, is dug into the ground so that its rim slightly rises above the ground, but the roots of the plant were reliably protected from the possibility of growing ...

Mint is not a whimsical plant, it is enough just to make sure that it does not dry out and does not become overgrown with weeds. It is also important to loosen, huddle and periodically feed the soil, especially in early spring.

Mint grows and bushes better if the plant is cut radically at the beginning of the season.

To protect it from freezing, the mint bed should be covered with spruce branches, manure, straw, dry leaves, or simply sprinkled with earth.

In one place, mint can grow up to ten years, but periodically, once every 3-4 years, the plants need to be completely renewed, otherwise its root system is destroyed under the influence of weeds, and the mint becomes weak.


Experienced advice on growing, processing and storing not only well-known crops (potatoes, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.), but also rare crops, to which the interest of vegetable growers has recently increased. For a vegetable garden you need: a sufficient amount of land, various containers, a place for "beds" in the room, careful selection of plants, lighting in the dark and maintaining certain temperatures in the room. A bonus for hostesses is a large number of culinary recipes.

1. What is needed for a home garden

For your home garden, you need enough land, capacity, space, careful selection of plants, lighting and maintaining the temperature during the dark season.

2. Strawberries in January

A kind of strawberry vitamin oasis is placed in flower pots, pots and simply in suitable jars; in the kitchen, plants can be grown all year round.

3. Golden apple from the windowsill

We are used to the fact that tomatoes are grown in greenhouses and garden beds. But several centuries ago, the "golden apple" was a potted plant and flaunted on the windowsills: fruits of different colors and shapes were very decorative. Today, a bush with tomatoes in the room will give fresh fruits in the middle of winter and will also decorate it. But you have to work hard, because the tomato is not easy [...]

4. Cucumbers in ... eggs

At home I grow onions by the window. In addition to it, you can grow parsley, sorrel, lettuce. dill For distillation, I usually take not the earth, but the substrate. I mix old sawdust (preferably after a year of storage) with a handful of earth and plant any greens. You can use sandy soil. In one soil, crops can be aggravated. I advise you not to sow root parsley with seeds, but to take [...]

5. Cucumber - a good fellow

Growing cucumbers in a room in winter is the highest class of a vegetable grower's day. After all, both the look and the smell of a cucumber set you in a good mood. Varieties Greenhouse, early maturing varieties are suitable for growing in the room. One of the ideal varieties for an indoor "vegetable garden" is considered the oldest variety of cucumber, which was bred by the famous Russian gardener M.V. Rytov. It's called Rytov's Room. But [...]

6.Pepper - vitamin record holder

Pepper is another vegetable that can be successfully grown on a window. And forget about vitamins from the pharmacy in winter, because sweet pepper, for example, contains more vitamin C than other vegetables. And bright - red, orange, yellow - the fruits will decorate any room. Varieties When choosing varieties of peppers for the windowsill, give preference to early ripening ones, which have a small compact [...]

Perennial herb of the aroid family. Introduced to Europe from Turkey in the 16th century. At present, it is distributed almost everywhere, forms thickets along the banks of rivers, lakes, oxbows, in wetlands. The plant is an indicator of the good quality of the water in the reservoir. The edible part is rhizomes. They are harvested in the fall. Dried for future use. The rhizome contains 4.8% essential oil, up to 150 mg% [...]


Shchiritsa, beetroot, rubella, amaranth - a 1-year-old plant of the family of hamsters. In the CIS, about 15 species are known, mainly weeds. Cultivated amaranth tailed and paniculate. It is widely distributed in China as a sealant and a means of distracting pests from the main plant, especially eggplant. Stem up to 1.5 m high, red, fleshy. The leaves are large, reddish. The inflorescence is red, up to 60 cm long, in [...]

Greens are harvested as needed, seeds are a 1-year-old plant of the celery family. The area of ​​his primary culture is Western Asia, the Mediterranean. The plant came to Central Europe from Rome in the 16th century. At this time in Germany, bread was baked with anise seeds. The plant was brought to Russia in the 30s of the last century. Now it is cultivated in the Voronezh and Belgorod regions, [...]


Cultivated peanuts, groundnuts, Chinese walnuts, ground pistachio - 1-year-old herbaceous plant. It has long been grown in the countries of Africa, America, Australia. In the 16th century. cultivated peanuts from South America were brought to Asia and then to Europe at the end of the 18th century. - to Russia. The largest areas under crops of peanuts are occupied in India, China, Burma, Indonesia, African countries, [...]


Table watermelon, kavun, originates from South Africa. The root system is powerful, highly branched, located mainly at a depth of 20–30 cm. The taproot deepens by 1 m or more. Creeping stem with long-petiolate pinnately dissected leaves. Plant 1-house flowers dioecious and hermaphrodite, solitary, less often in bunches. The fruit is a multi-seeded false berry (pumpkin). The shape of the fruit is spherical, oval and [...]


In the people, chokeberry for the blackness of the berries is called black chokeberry. But she belongs to a completely different genus. Unlike mountain ash, which grows as a tree, chokeberry is a shrub, somewhat reminiscent of currants, only higher, up to 2.5 m. In the garden, it is of great value. It is an unsurpassed accumulator of P-active substances. Biological features The chokeberry bush consists of a large number (50 and [...]


A perennial herb of the Aster family, resembles a thistle in appearance. The word "artichoke" is of Arabic origin and means "earthen thorn". The artichoke was already known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. In Western European countries, it is grown in large areas. In France, artichoke crops occupy about 10,000 hectares. The root is long, pivotal. The leaves are large, pinnately dissected with lobed lobes, green or gray-green, [...]


Basil U (Reagan) is a perennial plant in the Clay family. Comes from South Asia. In ancient Greece it was known as "okimon", used for various diseases. Basil is grown as a spice crop in many countries of Western Europe and North America. We cultivate it in Ukraine, in the republics of Transcaucasia and Central Asia. 2 types of basil are cultivated - ovgen-leaved and [...]


Eggplants are widespread in the southern regions of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and the republics of Central Asia. It is one of the most thermophilic vegetable crops.Seeds germinate best when temperatures reach 25–30 °. Seedlings - 6-8 days after sowing. With a decrease in temperature to 20 °, their appearance is greatly delayed. The optimum temperature for growth and development is in [...]


Okra (okra) is a 1-year-old plant of the malvaceous family. Homeland - East Africa. In the CIS, it is grown in the republics of the Caucasus and Central Asia. It resembles cotton in appearance. Develops from 2 to 6 stems from 30 cm high (in dwarf forms) to 2 m (in tall ones). Leaves are large, on long petioles, 5–7-lobed or separate, light or dark green. […]


Due to its medicinal, nutritional and melliferous properties, unpretentiousness, barberry by nature itself is intended for growing in gardens. In addition, it is decorative in the spring, showered from top to bottom with yellow delicate flowers, in the summer - covered with graceful ripening fruits of various colors, and in the fall - blazing with bright elegant foliage. Nutritional and medicinal properties In folk medicine, barberry fruits are used for increased arterial [...]


Small-flowered marigolds (black shavers, rejected tagetes) are a 1-year-old herb of the Aster family. The stem is erect, branched, 20–30 cm high. The leaves are simple, deeply pinnately dissected. The inflorescence is a basket. Median flowers are tubular, bisexual, fertile, yellow, marginal-ligulate. Womens - one-color or two-color (yellow, orange and red-brown with shades). Flowering from July to frost, abundant and long lasting. The fruit is achene. Weight 1000 [...]

Sweet potato

Sweet potato (cultivated or sweet potato) is a type of root plant of the bindweed family. One of the main food crops in tropical and some subtropical countries. Mexico and Central America are considered the birthplace of the cultural sweet potato. Sweet potatoes were brought to Europe (Spain) by Christopher Columbus. In Russia, attempts to grow sweet potatoes were made as early as the 18th century. At the beginning of the 20th century. Batumi paid a lot of attention to sweet potato [...]

Melons and gourds

Melons are cultivated herbaceous plants of the pumpkin family (watermelon, melon, pumpkin). They were brought to the European part of the CIS from tropical and subtropical countries of Asia, Africa and America. All melons and gourds are fast growing and require abundant sunlight. They are thermophilic, rather drought-resistant. They have a long growing season. They grow best on virgin, fallow lands, on the lungs mechanically [...]

White cabbage

Cabbage is the main vegetable crop in vegetable growing in most regions of our country. The plant is 2 years old. In the 1st year forms a head of cabbage - a gigantic overgrown apical bud on a stem, which in the middle part thickens strongly (up to 3.5-6 cm), turning into a stump. The leaves are lyre-shaped and whole, densely arranged on the stem with a rosette. In the 2nd year of life, the plant has a powerful [...]

Legumes vegetables

They are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins B1, B2, PP, E, C, as well as carotene, mineral salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Bacteria develop on their roots that assimilate free nitrogen from the air, so legumes are good precursors for all vegetable crops. Legumes are a good protein feed for animals. The stems and green mass of leguminous crops are embedded in the soil as [...]

Vegetable beans

Horse beans, Russian beans - 1 year old herb. It is unknown in the wild. One of the oldest vegetable crops - they were eaten in ancient Egypt, Rome and Greece. And in Russia they grew up even in the time of Yaroslav the Wise, in Kiev even special storage facilities for beans were built. The stem is erect, 4-sided, thick, from 30 [...]


Large perennial plant of the umbrella family. It grows along the edges, among the bushes, along the river banks. Contains up to 10% sugar, 16% protein, 2.2 mg% ascorbic acid and other valuable substances and vitamins.Young tender leaves are used in salads, pie fillings. The broths taste like chicken broths. For the winter, the leaves are dried and salted. Salad. Per 100 g [...]


Hawthorn is widely used for landscaping cities and towns, as well as in amateur gardening. It is appreciated for its high decorative qualities, medicinal and nutritional properties, high and regular yield, winter hardiness and durability. The best varieties Of particular importance are large-fruited varieties created by the Ukrainian enthusiasts V.M. Mezhensky and L.A. Mezhenskaya. Zbigniew. Fruits are spherical, up to 2 cm in diameter, [...]


Broccoli (asparagus) is a 1 year old plant. A variety of cauliflower. Homeland - Southern Italy. In the CIS, it has been grown since the beginning of the 20th century. Casting lyre-shaped, long-stemmed. The stem is 70–100 cm high. The fruit is a pod. The seeds are dark brown, attached to the septum. The fleshy head is used for food - a modified inflorescence in the form of a bunch of underdeveloped and strongly twisted flower buds, closed with sepals [...]

Rutabaga (galanka)

2-year-old plant of the cabbage family. Leaves are fleshy, dissected, less often whole, covered with a waxy coating, glabrous or slightly pubescent. 1st true leaves are usually pubescent with crenate or jagged edges. The root crop is flat, flat-round, round or oval. The bark is mesh or smooth, thick. The flesh is firm, yellow, light yellow or white. A noticeable thickening of the root crop begins 35-40 days after germination. Lemon yellow flowers (at [...]


From the legend People have long noticed the elderberry and knew its useful properties. Among all the peoples of Central Europe, it was revered as a sacred tree that contributes to the prolongation of life, making it possible to know the future. "Cultural" portrait The black elderberry flowers are collected in rather large umbellate inflorescences up to 25 cm in diameter, the berries are dark blue or almost black, edible. Under Vladimir, the black elder annually [...]


1 year old herb. Known in culture since ancient times - it was discovered by archaeologists in pile structures dating back to the Stone and Bronze Ages. Long ago grown and is a favorite vegetable plant in our country. The root system of peas is shallow, the stem is hollow, erect or lodging. According to the height of the stem, the varieties are subdivided into high (115–250 cm), medium-sized (70– 115 cm), [...]

Mustard leaf

In our country, its leaves are very rarely eaten. It's a pity! They are tasty and healthy, rich in ascorbic acid (up to 400 mg per 100 g of green mass). Mustard is a 1-year-old plant of the cabbage family, early ripening, cold-resistant, moisture-loving. Stem 50–150 cm tall, branched. Basal leaves, forming a rosette, are petiolate, upper lyre-shaped, sessile, whole. The flowers are small, golden yellow, collected in [...]

Gravilat city

A perennial plant of the Rosaceae family with a thick creeping rhizome. All parts of the plant contain tannins, vitamin C and provitamin A, roots - an essential oil with a pleasant bitter taste and a clove smell. Gravilat grows well in culture on any soils, except saline and waterlogged. Winter-hardy and drought-resistant, but it develops better on moist and loose soils. Propagated by seeds. […]


A perennial plant of the Aster family is found along the banks of reservoirs, in meadows. In Russia, it was believed that elecampane had extraordinary properties, it was allegedly capable of relieving nine serious ailments. The plant has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, expectorant, choleretic and diuretic properties. It has found application in medicine and the food industry. Its roots are rich in essential oils, carbohydrates (up to 44%) and organic acids. […]


1- or 2-year-old legume. Occurs on dry wastelands, ravine slopes, on the sides of fields. Melilot leaves and steppes contain up to 21% protein, 16% protein, 2.7% fat.Young and fresh leaves are used to make soups, okroshki, salads. Dry leaves and flowers are used in a fragrant mixture. Melilot has an irritating, distracting effect, promotes softening of tumors, opening [...]

Angelica forest

Perennial plant of the umbrella family. Grows in mixed forests, damp meadows, near streams and rivers, in ravines. Good honey plant. The leaves collected in the budding phase contain up to 17% protein, 3.8% fat, 14.2% fiber and 13.5% ash. Leaves and petioles are used for cooking 1 dishes. Unopened flower buds are boiled in salted water, then fried and served [...]


Oregano (winter marjoram, majoram, incense, mint) is a perennial shrub of the lamb family. Grows wild in the south of the European part of the CIS, Siberia, other countries of Europe, Asia, North America. The plant is 30–80 cm tall, with straight 4-sided, branched stems at the base, covered with fine hairs. Leaves are oblong, pointed. The flowers are purple with a pinkish-lilac tint, small, numerous, collected in [...]

Comes from Central and Asia Minor. Known in culture since the 2nd millennium BC. e. It appeared in the CIS much later - in the 12-13th century. A plant with a creeping long-leaved rounded-faceted stem. The leaves are large with long petioles. Antennae are formed in the axils of the leaves. The flowers are dioecious, but there are also bisexual, pollinated by insects. The fruit is a large fleshy, multi-seeded false [...]

Green crops

Green crops include vegetable plants that are harvested green (fresh or canned). They are of particular value - they contain a large amount of vitamins necessary for the human body (A, C, etc.), mineral and other substances and have high taste. All green crops are early ripening, give fresh greens in early spring, when the need for [...]


1-year-old plant of the family of lamines. Cultivated in the Transcaucasia, Krasnodar Territory, Crimea and in the southwestern regions of Ukraine. The stem is erect, 4-sided, branched, up to 80 cm high. The leaves are petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, serrate at the edges, the upper ones are green with a red-violet tint, the lower ones are dark green. The flowers are pale violet-blue or whitish, collected in false whorls, forming long racemose inflorescences. Seeds are small, ribbed, oblong-oval. The mass of 1000 seeds is 1.5–2 [...]

Zopnik tuberous

Perennial herb of the labiate family. Occurs in steppes, bushes, on forest edges. In the flowering phase in the leaves, up to 138 mg% of vitamin C, up to 6 alkaloids, saponins, tannins. In medicine, it is used against chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, general exhaustion. Zopnik tubers harvested in autumn are eaten boiled and baked. Soup. Take 300 [...]

Irga is appreciated for its external decorativeness, its elegant jagged leaves are dark green in spring, orange or red in autumn, and with its creamy white inflorescences it resembles bird cherry. But the main value of this shrub is still the fruits that begin to ripen in July, they are sweet and very juicy, have healing properties. Biological features In nature, Irga grows in North America, Western Europe, [...]


Perennial herbaceous plant of the lamb family. Homeland-Mediterranean. The culture, known since antiquity, spread in the Middle Ages. In the wild, it is found in rocky places in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of Kazakhstan, in the foothills of Altai. Cultivated in Central Asia, Ukraine, the Caucasus. Plant up to 70 cm tall with a 4-sided stem, lanceolate sessile leaves and dark blue, [...]


Bushy form of hard-barked pumpkin of the pumpkin family. Zucchini originates from South and Central America.They were brought to Russia at the end of the 19th century. from Turkey and Greece. The plant is predominantly bushy. Leaves 5-lobed, with coarse prickly pubescence. The fruit is a fleshy false berry of an elongated or cylindrical shape, white, green or green-striped in color. The pulp of the fruit is white. Cream-colored seeds. Zucchini [...]


Calendula officinalis (marigold) is a 1-year-old herb of the Aster family. The stem is erect, branched, often from the base. Basal leaves are oblong-ovate. Petiolate, stem-oblong-lanceolate, sessile, stalk-embracing. Numerous small flowers, orange or yellow, collected in a large single inflorescence-basket. The baskets contain carotenoids, carotene, violaxaitin, rubixanthin, citraxanthin, flavochrome, flavoxanthin, essential oil (0.02%), resins, gum, saponins, phytoncides, bitter substances, salicylic and malic acids. […]


Our ancestors, the ancient Slavs, also brought viburnum trees from the forest, planted them near their homes and worshiped them. Viburnum berries were one of the favorite dishes, a cure for ailments. In our times, viburnum has not lost its former attractiveness, especially after science has identified many biologically active substances in it that are useful in prevention and treatment [...]


Perennial plant of the Aster family. Grows wild in the southern regions of Russia, in Armenia, northern Iran. Plant height - up to 80 cm. The stem is branched, with pubescent petiole leaves, serrated at the edges. Flowers are collected in an inflorescence - a shallow basket. Blooms in July - September. Does not form seeds. Propagated by dividing rhizomes. Unpretentious, heat-resistant, does not tolerate salinization. IN […]


Capers (caper, caper) is a perennial climbing or creeping plant of the caperceae family. Distributed in the south of the CIS. Grows wild in the Crimea, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Central Asia. The branches of the plant are up to 1.5 m long. Leaves are rounded or elliptical on short petioles. Young leaves and ends of branches are covered with white tomentose pubescence. The flowers are large, pale pink, white or slightly yellowish. […]

Brussels sprouts

Brussels sprouts (multi-cabbage) is a 2-year-old plant. In the 1st year of life, forms a stem 20–60 cm high and more, with small or medium-sized petiolate green leaves of different shades forming a rosette at the top. The surface of the leaf is bubbly. In the axils of the leaves of the main stem, small heads of cabbage (the size of a walnut) develop. On one plant - up to 20 and more total [...]

Chinese cabbage

1 year old or winter plant of the cabbage family, one of the oldest cultivated plants. Archaeologists find its seeds during excavations of the Stone and Bronze Ages. Homeland-Mediterranean. It is widely cultivated in East Asia (China, Japan, Korea). It ripened very early: from germination to economic suitability, ie, the formation of a rosette of 9-10 true leaves, it takes 35-45 days. The rosette is upright or flat, 23–55 [...]

Kohlrabi cabbage

2 year old plant. In the 1st year of life, it forms a very short stem, which, expanding in width, forms a stemfruit of a round, round-flat, cylindrical or oval shape of whitish-green, green, pale purple and violet in color with white juicy pulp. Plants 30–80 (and more) cm in diameter with outstretched lyre-lobed and lyre-shaped leaves of grayish-green or gray-violet color. In the 2nd year, flowering shoots form [...]

Red cabbage

This 2-year-old plant differs in appearance from cabbage in reddish-purple color of leaves. The plant is cold-resistant, with dense heads of cabbage with high keeping quality. The most common varieties are: mid-ripening - Kamennaya golubov 447, Mikhnevskaya mid-late - Gako 741. The growing season is 115–150 days. Head of cabbage weight - 1.6-3.8 kg.The cultivation technique is similar to the mid- and late-ripening varieties of white cabbage. In red cabbage [...]


1-year-old or winter, fast-growing cabbage family. The lower leaves are collected in a dense (raised) rosette (the stem is almost invisible), 30-50 cm in diameter, sessile, whole, from oblong-obovate to rounded, wrinkled-swollen, light yellow and dark green with a weak waxy coating. The main veins are juicy, tender, very wide. The plant is early ripening (from sowing to the formation of a rosette - 40-50 days), forms only a rosette of leaves [...]

Savoy cabbage

Its distinctive feature of this 2-year-old plant is its highly bubbly leaf surface. Heads of cabbage are similar in shape to white cabbage, from above it is light green in color, inside it is light yellow. Varieties: Vienna early 1346, Yubileinaya-2170 - early ripening Vertyu 1340 - medium late. The economic suitability of early ripening varieties begins 5–7 days earlier than that of the early ripening variety of white cabbage Number one, mushroom 147. The cultivation technique is similar to that of white cabbage [...]


1 year old or winter plant. An ancient species, its domestication took place in the Mediterranean countries. Currently cultivated on all continents. The main stem is thickened, cylindrical, 15–70 cm high. The leaves are whole, elongated (lanceolate), from light to blue-green and gray in color with strong anthocyano pigmentation. From the axils of the upper leaves in the 1st year of life, shoots are formed and, branching strongly, they cluster in [...]


Cardon (Spanish artichoke) is a perennial, sometimes prickly plant of the Aster family. It is considered the ancestor of artichokes. Cardon is found wild in southern Europe and North Africa. It spread throughout Europe from Spain, especially in France, Italy and England, where it is used as an autumn and winter vegetable. In appearance, the plant looks like an artichoke, but it is stronger [...]


Potatoes are one of the most ancient plants introduced by man into culture. This is evidenced by archaeological excavations carried out in South America. The time of potato cultivation is at least 14 thousand years. On the territory of Peru and Northern Chile, on the ocean coast, there are places of ancient burials, where dried tubers were found along with mummies. A large number of burials were also found there [...]


Katran (steppe, Tatar, oriental) is a perennial herb of the cabbage family. Good substitute for horseradish. In the wild, it is distributed in the foothill regions of the Crimea and the Caucasus. Introduced into culture in the 60s of the current century. Propagated by seeds, sometimes by rhizome shoots. Taproot, weakly branched, fleshy, 50 cm long and more, 2.7–7 cm in diameter, weighing 500–600 g, penetrates deep into the ground [...]


Chervil leaf, common, or garden - 1-year-old herbaceous plant of the celery family. Crevel was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, but found widespread since the middle of the 16th century. Grows wild in the European part of the CIS and southern European countries. The plant has a triple-pinnate, smooth or curly leaf. The stem ends with an inflorescence - an umbrella, in which small white [...]

Narrow-leaved fireweed

Narrow-leaved fireweed (plakun, lurker, ivan tea, koporsky tea, koporka, kuril tea) is a perennial herb of the fireweed family. It grows in forest clearings, plumage, embankments and slopes, along roads and ditches. Young leaves, shoots and roots contain vitamin C, tannins and mucous substances. Propagated by rhizomes. The roots are harvested in autumn, freshly used raw and boiled instead of asparagus and cabbage, [...]


Coriander (kisnets, cilantro) is a 1-year-old plant of the celery family. Homeland - the countries of the Mediterranean, where he found application already in ancient times.As a spice and medicinal plant, coriander was known in Egypt, Palestine, India. Grows wild in the Caucasus, including the North, in Central Asia and the Black Earth zone of Russia, in the Ukraine. Plant up to 120 cm tall. […]

Cow peas

Cowpea (cowpea) is a 1 year old plant. Unknown in the wild. Homeland - India. It was cultivated as a vegetable in a number of countries in Europe, America, Asia, in the CIS, in the Caucasus, in the North Caucasus, in the south of Ukraine, in Central Asia. There are a large number of cultivated forms of bushy, semi-bushy, creeping and climbing, stakes. In China, cowpea is widespread with fleshy asparagus beans reaching 1 [...]

Stinging nettle

A perennial plant of the nettle family up to 1.5 m high. It grows in gardens, along borders, ravines, river banks, near dwellings, in ravines, in wastelands. Stem obtuse-tetrahedral, straight, like leaves, covered with stinging hairs. The rhizome is rather long, creeping. It bears well-developed adventitious roots, which determines the possibility of vegetative propagation of plants. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, cordate, large-serrate along the edge. Flowers [...]


Watercress (bruncress, watercress) is a perennial herb of the cabbage family. Often cultivated in a 1 year old crop. It has long been used as a vegetable crop in Western Europe, Asia, America. Stems are thick, hollow, 10 to 60 cm tall, erect and easy to root. The leaves are dissected, dark green, shiny. The flowers are small, white, clustered in racemose inflorescences. Fruit pod. It grows wild [...]


Watercress (bedbug) is a 1-year-old plant of the cabbage family, 30-60 cm tall. This very early ripening culture has long attracted the attention of vegetable growers as a source of rutin, carotene, ascorbic acid and other mineral salts, which does not require large material costs for its cultivation. It was known in Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Feral cultural forms of watercress are found very widely in [...]


Perennial herb of the Rosaceae family. Grows in flooded meadows, in thickets of bushes. In the leaves, in addition to essential oil - 900–1800 mg% of ascorbic acid. The rhizome contains up to 20% tannins, pigments, calcium salts, saponins, organic acids. Young leaves are used to prepare salads, dried leaves are a component of tea. In medicine, burnet is used for diseases accompanied by bleeding (hemoptysis in patients [...]


1-year-old plant, a type of hard-barked gourd of the gourd family. Origin - South and Central America. Although crookneks were brought to Russia at the beginning of the 19th century, they are still little known to vegetable growers in our country; in Holland, Canada, and the USA they are held in high esteem by farmers. The bush is compact, 50–70 cm high. The leaves are 5-sided with solid edges. On long stalks [...]

Sugar corn

Sugar corn is a 1-year-old plant of the bluegrass family. Homeland - South America. Introduced to Europe and other countries in the 16th century. In the CIS, it is grown almost everywhere. In terms of nutritional value and taste, sweet corn occupies one of the first places among vegetable crops. Whoever tastes a boiled ear of corn, smeared with oil and salt at least once, will not refuse to use it again [...]


Lagenaria (Indian cucumber, gourd, Vietnamese zucchini, bottle gourd, dish pumpkin) is a 1-year-old 1 -house plant of the pumpkin family with an angular climbing or lying stem, up to 5 m long, single axillary dioecious flowers of a whitish color. Leaves are whole or 3-5-lobed. Fruits are light green, yellowing when ripe, very diverse in size (from 10 to 100 cm long) and [...]


Perennial plant of the Rosaceae family. It grows in nystyry, in gardens, near roads, rivers and lakes. More than 300 species are known, distributed everywhere, but mainly in North America.There are more than 170 species in the CIS. For use in culture, 2 types are most valuable - cinquefoil goose, or goose foot, and upright cinquefoil (galangal, narrow). Cinquefoil goose is a good honey plant, nutritious [...]

Garden quinoa

1-year-old early maturing plant of the haze family. Distributed as a weed or feral plant in countries with temperate and cold climates. The stem is erect, from 60 cm to 2 m in height, straight leaves are triangular, spear-shaped at the base, serrated, various in color — yellow, green, gray-gray, red and variegated (green with a red edge). Flowers are collected in bunches in spike-shaped inflorescences, always unisexual. Fruit - [...]

Liffa sharp-ribbed

1-year-old plant of the pumpkin family. For a long time it was attributed to the same genus as the cucumber, and only in the 18th century. it was singled out as an independent genus. Luffa has gained fame and is very popular as a vegetable sponge, washcloth. Few people know that its fruits can be used in writing. This plant is widespread in India and surrounding countries, in [...]

Loba (lobo, lobo radish) is a group of varieties of Chinese radish of the cabbage family. A favorite vegetable of the population of China and Japan. The plant is predominantly 1 year old. The duration of the growing season is 60–90 days, before the formation of seeds - 119–120. Leaf rosette of 10-12 leaves, often open. The leaf blades are whole, lyre-lobed, lyre-separate, lyre-dissected. Rosette height - up to 25 cm, diameter - up to 60 [...]


Lobia (hyacinth beans, common dolichosis) is a herbaceous 1-year-old plant of the legume family. An ancient cultivated food and korel plant in the wild is unknown. It is cultivated mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa, America, Western Europe, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Crimea, Moldova, the North Caucasus and southern Ukraine. Sometimes lobia is mistakenly considered one of the types [...]


Burdock (burdock, bilberry) is a 2– or perennial plant of the Aster family. It grows everywhere. Loves moist soil. Good honey plant. It is cultivated as a vegetable plant in France, Belgium, USA, China, Japan. In culture, they are grown through seedlings or sown with seeds in the ground. In the fall, they dig up white roots - juicy, pleasant to the taste, slightly sweetish. N.M. Verzilin (after A.K.Koshcheev) [...]

Batun onion

Batun onion (fisty, Tatar, winter, pesos) is a perennial plant, cultivated for the sake of early growing greens, although a small onion is also used for food. Outwardly, it is very similar to onions, but the onion does not form on the batun. In China, it is the leading culture and almost completely meets the population's need for onions. Known in this country for 3500 years. From ancient times […]

Sweet onion

A perennial herbaceous favorite plant of the Chinese population. Known in China for over 3000 years. Distributed in the Far East, Mongolia, Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Fragrant onions have juicy, rather wide leaves, as well as a thick stem, called a false bulb. On the bottom of this bulb, juicy white scales (leaf bases) are densely placed, vegetative [...]

Tiered bow

A perennial plant, a variety of onion batun. Outwardly, it looks like a bulb and a batun. Just like onions, this type of onion forms fist-like leaves and a true basal bulb. Its main difference from the batun and onion is in the structure of the flower arrow, which ends not with flowers, but with air bulbs located in 3-4 tiers. The largest air bulbs (bulbs) are [...]

Bulb onions

Depending on the methods of culture, it is grown in a 1-2 or 3-year culture. In the North Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Ukraine, as well as in Western Europe, the USA, where a sufficient duration of the frost-free period, onions are obtained in 1 year by sowing seeds in the ground.Long day plant, cold-resistant, light-loving, demanding on soil fertility and moisture. With an 8-10 hour day [...]

Slime onion

Slime onion (ferruginous) is a perennial herb with flat light and dark green leaves up to 40 cm long and 2-3 cm wide. Similar in appearance to allspice onions, but the leaves of the slime are wider and thicker. He forms a false bulb, leaves from which can grow throughout the growing season. The same goes for him [...]


Shallots (magpie) are widespread in the south of the CIS. It differs from onions in its multi-nesting and cold resistance (it can withstand temperatures as low as minus 10-15 °). The plant is 2 years old. In the 1st year forms a nest of 4–5 small bulbs. When these bulbs are subsequently planted, large nests are formed with 8-10 small bulbs weighing 25-50 g. The number of buds in the bulb reaches 10-15. Most [...]

Chives bow

Chives (chives, skoroda, Siberian onions) is a perennial frost-resistant plant that quickly forms a bush with delicate leaves. It develops strongly (in the 3rd year, up to 50-100 branches). Homeland - South Asia. Schnitt does not have real bulbs - they are false, in diameter - no thicker than 11 cm. The roots grow every year and form a powerful sod, penetrating to a depth of 20-30 cm. Each [...]


2 year old herb. Does not occur in the wild. Homeland-Mediterranean. It has long been known to the ancient Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. Outwardly, it looked like a broadleaf garlic. The leek does not form a true bulb. A bleached false stem that is 10 to 40 cm long, together with a bulb, is often incorrectly referred to as a bulb. The leaves are flat, folded along the central vein, covered with a waxy bloom. […]

Bulbous plants

All types of onions belong to the lily family. They have a high content of phytoncides, that is, biologically active substances that kill pathogenic bacteria in the human body and increase its resistance to various diseases. Eight independent world centers of origin of these cultivated plants have been established. The primary center of onion formation is the Central Asian focus: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Western Tien Shan, where it is now [...]


Lovage (dawn officinalis, piper, love-grass, pharmaceutical lovage) is a perennial herb of the celery family. It grows in almost every yard in Ukraine. In the 1st year it forms a rosette of basal leaves, in the 2nd year it blooms and forms seeds. The plant reaches 2 m in height. Leaves are double-triple-pinnate, large, dark green, shiny, cool to the touch thanks to the essential oil they contain. Stem [...]


It is a perennial plant of the lamb family. The ancient Greeks were convinced that it brought joy and courage. It has long been cultivated in Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome and was highly valued as a spice, medicinal and ornamental plant. Currently, in the wild and in culture, marjoram grows in the tropics, countries of southern and central Europe, China, and the USA. In the CIS [...]


Chard (leaf beet, beetroot) is a subspecies of the common beet of the family of Marevidae. 2-year-old vegetable plant with thick, fleshy wrinkled leaves and petioles with a fibrous, very branched, sometimes thickened inedible root. The latter is entirely in the ground and is pulled out with difficulty. The flowers are small, greenish pericarp, growing together, form fruit. Cultivated in a number of countries in Western Europe, Latin America, India, USA, Japan [...]


Lungwort (lungwort) is a perennial plant of the borage family. Grows on the edges, glades. In England, it is grown specifically as a salad plant. Lungwort and we may be the earliest salad plant.Its green parts contain a lot of salts - silicon, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, boron, titanium, nickel, copper and vitamin C, rutin, carotene. It has long been known in folk medicine [...]


Melissa, lemon mint, lemongrass, bee grass, raevnik are a perennial herb of the lamb family. Homeland - Southern Europe, where it has been known since ancient times. Even then, it was specially cultivated as a honey plant. Melissa honey is of high quality. It grows in weedy places, along forest edges, among thickets of bushes in the southern regions of the European part of the CIS, in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, Central Asia. […]

Perennial plants

Perennial vegetable crops grow in the same place in the open field for several years without transplanting. They hibernate only the roots, which contain large reserves of nutrients. Products can be obtained from early spring, when other vegetables from the open field are not yet available, and often until late autumn. Unfortunately, amateur vegetable growers do not pay enough attention to the cultivation of valuable [...]


2-year-old plant of the Umbelliferae family. It is considered one of the main vegetable crops. Even in ancient times, it was known to many peoples. The first information about carrots as a cultivated plant dates back to 2000–1000. BC e. In every book devoted to medicinal plants, it is noted that carrots are the most important plant product from which vitamin A (carotene), the growth vitamin, is obtained. Will not be in the body [...]


It is a perennial plant of the lamb family. It has been cultivated for about 250 years. Distributed everywhere. Several types of it are used in nutrition. In the 17th century. Peppermint was obtained by hybridization. Occurs in the wild. In Transcaucasia, apple mint is grown with a delicate aroma and taste. Plant with well-developed horizontal rhizomes and straight 4-sided branched stems. Plant height up to 1 m. Leaves [...]

Cultural nasturtium

Cultivated nasturtium (capuchin) is a 1-year-old plant of the nasturtium family. The stem is creeping, the leaves are thyroid-rounded-unequal, green or dark red, juicy. The flowers are large, single, bisexual, on long, irregularly shaped pedicels, with a spur, yellow, orange or red, of different shades. The fruit is fractional, of 31-seed lobes. Seeds are large, 5–7 mm in diameter, round, with a spongy light yellow shell. In culture, 2 types are widespread - [...]


Nigella (wild cherry, girl in greenery) is a 1-year-old herb of the buttercup family. Cultivated for the seeds. It is used as a spice in the countries of the Middle East, Mediterranean, southern part of Western Europe, in the CIS, in the Central regions of the European part, and occasionally in the North Caucasus. Leaves are double- or triple-pinnate (narrow lobes). The flowers are solitary, with 5 petal-shaped blue sepals, small greenish petals in the form of two-lipped [...]

Chickpea cultural

Cultivated chickpea (ram peas, bladderworm) is a 1-year-old herb with a taproot system. Homeland - Asia. Since ancient times, it has been cultivated in India, Pakistan, the Mediterranean countries, Mexico, etc. In the CIS, its crops are insignificant. The plant is 20–70 cm high with pinnate (11–17 pcs.) Small leaves, pubescent with glandular hairs that secrete oxalic, citric and malic acids. Flowers [...]

Sea buckthorn

On the gloomiest autumn day, the sea buckthorn garden seems to be filled with the sun, bright light, and most importantly - an amazing smell that spreads throughout the district. Every year sea buckthorn pleases with an excellent harvest. And its fruits, due to the high content of biologically active substances, have a therapeutic effect. Peculiarities of cultivation Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant, which means that male and female flowers [...]

Oat root

Oat root (white goat root) is a 2-year-old plant of the Aster family. It is cultivated as a vegetable in a number of Western European countries, the USA and Canada.In the 1st year, the plant forms a root crop and a rosette of numerous leaves, in the 2nd year it blooms and forms seeds. The root crop is cylindrical, grayish-white, 3-4 cm in diameter, with numerous thin lateral roots. Stem 100–150 [...]


1-year-old herb of the cucurbitaceae family. There are probably no people in the world who would not like or at least not eat cucumbers - fresh or lightly salted, salted or pickled. Fresh are especially good. Strong, juicy, they increase appetite, improve the absorption of nutrients by the body, and reduce the acidity of gastric juice. Cucumber belongs to the most ancient vegetable plants, its culture is counted for thousands of years [...]

Cucumber herb

Cucumber grass (borage, boron) - 1- or 2-year-old plant of the borage family. Cultivated as a 1 year old plant. Homeland - the Mediterranean coast. It grows everywhere. It has a well-developed taproot with numerous lateral roots. The stalk is fleshy, reaching 80–100 cm in height. Bushes strongly. The leaves are juicy, elliptical, covered with hairs, and have the smell and taste of fresh cucumbers. The flowers are large, blue, pink or white, [...]


A well-known perennial herb of the Aster family. In the wild, it is distributed throughout the country, except for the Far North. In France, it is cultivated as a garden crop with larger and delicate leaves. Taproot, slightly branched, fleshy. The stem is missing. The leaves are notched-ply-incised shape, collected in a basal rosette. The flower arrows are hollow, leafless, 5–50 cm high. The flowers are ligulate, golden yellow. Inflorescence - single apical [...]


2-year-old plant of the Umbelliferae family. It is grown to produce spicy spices. Root crops are fleshy, rounded-elongated and elongated-conical, yellow-white with a smooth surface, with pronounced lenticels. The growing season is 140 days. Cold-resistant, adult plants tolerate frosts of 7–8 °. Grown by sowing seeds in the ground. Seeds begin to germinate at 2–3 ° C. They sprout slowly - on the 15-20th day to speed up their germination, [...]

Shepherd's bag

1 year old herb from the cabbage family. It grows everywhere. The leaves contain choline, acetylcholine, tyramine, isotin, tannins, malic, citric, fumaric acids, vitamins A, B1, C, K, phytoncides, essential oil, iron, chromium, manganese, copper, titanium, aluminum, phosphorus, calcium ... Young leaves are eaten. They are used to prepare soups, salads, mashed potatoes, fillings for pies. The seeds are used in [...]


Squash (dish pumpkin) is a 1-year-old plant of the pumpkin family. Vegetative organs - like a vegetable marrow. The fruit is strongly flattened, disco- or jelly-like, with a smooth or scalloped edge, a smooth or warty surface, white, cream or yellow in color. Fruit weight, depending on age, ranges from 100–150 to 800 g. The seeds are large (1 g –7–9 pcs.). Cream - with [...]


Primrose (lambs, rams, initial, primrose officinalis) is a perennial herb of the primrose family. Occurs in forest glades, meadows, along roadsides. Grown as a vegetable in Holland and England. It grows well in gardens and greenhouses, on the window - in boxes and flower pots. The plant is not tall with a rosette of ovate-wrinkled leaves and an umbrella (drooping to one side) of golden yellow flowers [...]


It is widely distributed in the southern regions of the country and is used fresh, in home cooking and the canning industry. The fruits are very rich in vitamins. They are a kind of multivitamin concentrate. These are vitamins C, B, B2, carotene (provitamin A) and rutin. The content of vitamin C in the best varieties of pepper reaches 200-250 mg% and is almost 4 times more than in lemon. […]

Hot pepper

Perennial shrub of the nightshade family.Comes from Mexico and Guatemala. The Indians of tropical America have cultivated it since ancient times. Pepper in their everyday life can be compared with salt for the white population. In Russia, the first mention of pepper dates back to 1616. And in the middle of the 19th century. it was already cultivated on an industrial scale in the Astrakhan region. To Crimea […]


1-year-old herb of the legume family. Cultivated as a vegetable crop in China, Japan, Korea. The most common are 2 types. The first is perilla basilicum (sudza) with a taproot, branchy, strongly pubescent stem 90–110 cm high, broadly oval leaves of green or anthocyanin color. The flowers are small, white, collected in a racemose inflorescence. The fruit is a nut. The mass of 1000 seeds is 2.6–3.9 g. By the time of ripening, the plant produces a strong [...]


2-year-old plant of the Umbelliferae family. In culture, the type of Curly parsley is widespread, which is subdivided into leaf and root. Group 2 includes 2 varieties - with ordinary leaves and with curly ones. Leaves are double- or triple-pinned, green, shiny, on long petioles. The rosette of parsley has 15 to 40 leaves. The shape of the root is conical, pointed, shortened or elongated-conical. Root coloring [...]

Fruit Plants

Fruit plants - a large group of 1st perennial plants with edible fruits of high nutritional and dietary value, preventive and medicinal value.


Perennial plant of the plantain family. It grows along roads, wastelands and weedy places. There are 3 species in all areas — large, medium, lanceolate. And in some regions of the country there are 5 more species. The leaves contain carotene, vitamins C and P, citric acid, phytoncides, enzymes, glycosides, bitterness. The plant is known as a medicinal and dietary plant. Plantain preparations increase the secretion of the bronchial glands, [...]


1-year-old plant of the purslane family. Homeland-Central Asia. It has been known as a cultivated plant for a very long time. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans knew about him, later in the countries of Western Europe. In our country, purslane is cultivated in the republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus. In the wild, it is found in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the CIS, in the Far East, in Central Asia, often grows [...]


Mallow mallow (wild mallow, wild mallow, kalachiki, erysipelas) is a herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family. It grows along roads, in bushes, in wastelands and vegetable gardens. Contains 10–20 mg% carotene, up to 22 mg% vitamin C, glycosides, dyes. In folk medicine, infusion of flowers and leaves, decoction of roots is used against bronchitis, laryngitis, catarrh of the stomach and intestines. Outwardly with the infusion of the plant [...]

Gingerbread plants

They differ from other plants used for food in a specific chemical composition. Humanity has always highly appreciated spicy cultures for the content of components that form essential oils in them. Spices are a product of exclusively vegetable origin. Plants are eaten fresh (raw) or dry. To reduce the loss of essential oils, it is better to store dry spices in a room with a low positive temperature in [...]


Perennial herbaceous plant of the buckwheat family. Distinguish between vegetable and medicinal rhubarb. The homeland of vegetable rhubarb is Siberia, Northern Mongolia. In the wild, it is found in the Far East, Siberia and Central Asia. In Russia, it began to be cultivated at the end of the 19th century. Nowadays, the culture is widespread. The leaves of vegetable rhubarb are large, petiolar, collected in a basal rosette, [...]


1-year-old plant of the cabbage family. The earliest root vegetable. The lower true leaves are lyre-shaped, the upper ones are dissected, with a large upper lobe and slightly smaller lateral ones. The rosette of leaves is small, spread out. Root crops of various shapes - from flat-round to long conical and fusiform.The color of the root crop is white, purple, red with various shades, pink-red with a white tip. The plant is cold-resistant. Seedlings tolerate frosts [...]


2-year-old plant of the cabbage family. People have known her for a long time. The image of the radish can be seen even on the boulders of the Cheops pyramid. In Russia, she was an indigenous vegetable. The leaves are strongly dissected, with a large apical lobe and harsh-haired. Root crops are round or long with different colors - white, red, pink, purple, yellow, variegated, gray and black. The flowers are white, pink or purple. Fruit pod. […]

2-year-old plant of the cabbage family. One of the oldest vegetable crops. It was cultivated in Ancient Greece and Rome. From time immemorial, turnip was considered a primordially Russian vegetable and was grown everywhere in Russia. It was boiled, baked, fried, fermented. Almost no table was complete without turnips until the potatoes appeared (about 200 years ago): Rosette leaves, dissected, [...]


Evergreen perennial shrub of the Yaroslavl family. In natural thickets, it is distributed in Mediterranean countries. Found in the wild in southern Europe. In the CIS, it is cultivated in the Crimea, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Introduced into culture in the 17th century. Plant up to 2 m tall, highly branched. Leaves are leathery, linear. Flowers are white or blue-violet, collected in dense paniculate inflorescences. It blooms in [...]


Fragrant rue (fragrant) is a perennial shrub of the rue family. Homeland -South Europe. Distributed in China, Japan, in the CIS, in the Crimea. Cultivated as a spice and medicinal plant in Germany and other countries. Stem and leaves are bluish-green in color. The stem is straight, Branched, 30-50 cm high. The leaves are alternate, thick, Double- or thrice-pinnate. The flowers are yellow-green, collected in an inflorescence - a semi-umbrella. Fruit - 4–5-nested box [...]


The rowan is extraordinarily good. Whoever has such a tree near the house can admire its beauty all year round, which is special at every season. Blossoming in spring, green in summer, crimson in autumn, burning with scarlet tassels against the background of snow ... Besides, its fruits are valuable medicinal raw materials. About the benefits of mountain ash As a rule, gardeners rarely use the fruits of red mountain ash, growing it only as [...]

Garden salad

1-year-old plant of the Aster family. One of the most ancient cultivated vegetable crops. Homeland-Mediterranean. It has been grown in Russia since the 17th century. There are 3 main forms of salad, although there are intermediate ones. Leaf salad. Forms a leaf rosette without a head of cabbage. Early ripening - the growing season before the beginning of technical ripeness is 40-50 days. Varieties: Moscow Greenhouse, Curly-leafy yellow. Cabbage salad. Along with gentle [...]

Asparagus salad

Asparagus salad (uysun) is a valuable green culture (its leaves and stems accumulate nitrates much less than other leafy ones). Homeland - China. In the CIS, one variety is known - Dungan, widespread in Kyrgyzstan, but local forms in the areas of their cultivation (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan) have significant differences in morphological and economic characteristics. Responsive to fertilizers and high light intensity. Growing technology [...]


A 2-year-old plant of the family of Hibiscus In terms of its importance and distribution, it occupies one of the first places among vegetable crops. This is due to the fact that it is not so difficult to grow, it is well stored, which means that it can be consumed fresh almost all year round and transported over long distances. Leaves are petiolate, whole with a heart-ovoid plate, smooth [...]


2-year-old plant of the Umbelliferae family. The inflorescence is a complex umbel with small white flowers. The fruit is a two-seed. Seeds are very small, round, with 5 ribs. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.4-0.5 g.They are very hydroscopic, so well-dried seeds should be stored only in dry rooms - in a closed plastic or glass container. There are 3 varieties of celery - leaf (breakaway), petioled (salad) and root. […]


Scorzonera (black root) is a perennial plant of the Aster family. It is more often cultivated in a 1- or 2-year culture. Distributed in a number of Western European countries, in Holland, Germany, France, Italy, etc. In our country, scorzonera is rarely found in culture. Wild forms — about 60 species — are widespread in various regions of the CIS, especially in the Caucasus, Crimea, and Central Asia. Have [...]

To dream

Snit ordinary (snitka, snit, snit) is a perennial herb of the umbrella family. It grows among forest bushes, clearings, gardens and parks. Young leaves and stems are rich in vitamin C and contain trace elements. In folk medicine, the herb infusion is taken orally against rheumatism, gout, gastrointestinal diseases, kidney and bladder diseases. Leaves and stems are harvested in spring and summer. From [...]


Perennial herb of the asparagus family. Grows wild in Europe, Asia, Africa, America. Culture was brought to Russia from Holland in the second half of the 18th century. Now it is found along the banks of the Volga and other rivers, in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Siberia, the Far East and Kazakhstan. There are several types of asparagus. Asparagus is practiced in the culture, [...]


Knotweed (bird knotweed) is a 1-year-old plant of the buckwheat family. It grows everywhere. Contains up to 17% vegetable protein, 27% fiber, 44% extractives and tannins, resins, wax, sugar. There are many salts of phosphorus, calcium, zinc, silicon, up to 120 mg% ascorbic acid, carotene, flavones, glucosides. In medicine, infusions and decoctions of knotweed are used for bleeding on the basis of uterine atony, as well as intestinal [...]


Stachis (Siebold's purse, Japanese or Chinese artichoke) is a perennial plant in the family of the laminoceae. In culture, it is cultivated as a 1-year-old plant. The homeland of stachis is China. It is also widespread in China and Japan; it is cultivated as a vegetable in East Asia, in some European countries, the USA, and Brazil. At the beginning of this century, there were attempts to cultivate stachis in Russia. However, high prices for it, weak [...]

Table root vegetables

Plants are usually 2-, less often 1- and perennial, grown for the sake of powerful juicy underground organs. In the 1st year of life, they develop a rosette of leaves and a root crop, in which reserves of nutrients accumulate. In the 2nd year (the exception is summer radish and radish), the plants emit a flower stem, bloom and form seeds. Most root vegetables contain a lot of carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids, easily digestible [...]


Perennial herb of the Pastukhov family. It grows in reservoirs with stagnant or slowly flowing water, near the banks of rivers and ponds, in wetlands. The most common are 2 types - ordinary and three-leafed. In both species, tuberous formations grow from the rhizome, which contain starch, proteins, fats, tannins, and organic acids. Each plant has up to 10 nodules with a diameter [...]

Susak umbrella

It is a perennial plant of the susak family. Up to 150 cm high. Grows along the banks of rivers, ponds, lakes, in ditches, in wetlands, like a weed in rice fields. Propagated by segments of roots. Tubers are formed on the roots, which contain up to 60% starch. In folk medicine, this plant is a laxative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory agent. A decoction of rhizomes is prescribed for menstrual irregularities - it enhances [...]


Chinese radish. A group of varieties of the cabbage family. It is widely spread in the CIS in the Far East, Kazakhstan, Georgia.The plant is 1-year-old, with a vegetative period of 25-50 and 60-75 days, respectively, in the soon- and late-ripening, reproductive - up to 160. A rosette of 5-10 leaves, raised or spreading, up to 30 cm in height, up to 40 cm in diameter. The leaves are whole or lyre-dissected. Root vegetables [...]

Thyme ordinary

Thyme ordinary (thyme) is a herbaceous plant or shrub of the family of the laminoceae. Homeland - the Mediterranean coast. The plant was respected in Ancient Greece, and the ancestors of the Slavs loved it. Currently cultivated in Western Europe, USA, Canada. Beekeepers appreciate it for its good melliferous qualities. There are about 30 species of thyme, of which 13 grow in the CIS. The plant has a strong [...]

Caraway (field anise) is a multi- or 2-year-old plant of the celery family. It was prized in Ancient Greece and Rome. Caraway was well known in the Middle Ages: it was used in baking bread, added to milk, and made soup with it. In the wild, caraway is widespread in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the CIS, Siberia, the Caucasus, the Crimea, [...]


Tomatoes (tomatoes) - among vegetable crops, tomatoes occupy a leading place, and in our country they are grown almost everywhere. The fruits of tomatoes are valued for their high taste and dietary properties. They are distinguished by a high content of organic acids, especially malic and citric acids. The salts of organic acids that make up their composition have a high alkalizing ability, which contributes to the maintenance of acid-base balance in the body. […]

Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke (earthen pear) is a perennial tuberous plant of the Aster family. Homeland - North America, where it was introduced into the culture of the Indians (before the appearance of Europeans there). The ground part resembles a sunflower. The stem is straight, strong, cylindrical, branching at the top, 1.2–2.5 m high, sometimes up to 4 m. The leaves are large, with petioles, ovoid, but pointed at the narrowed end, serrated along the edge. Inflorescence-basket [...]


Trigonella (blue fenugreek, hops-suneli) is a 1-year-old plant of the legume family. Stem 30-60 cm tall, erect, branched. Leaves are oblong, pinnate-trifoliate, sharp-toothed. The flowers are blue, in shortened capitate axillary racemes. The fruit is a bean. Fenugreek is cultivated in the gardens and orchards of Central Asia and Transcaucasia as a spicy crop. It ripens early, thermophilic, vegetation period - 90 days, unpretentious to growing conditions. Seeds are sown at the end [...]


Pumpkin (harbor) - comes from America, where it was cultivated long before the discovery of the continent by Columbus. It was brought to Europe in the 16th century. The plant is long-leaved, creeping, with a cylindrical pubescent stem. The leaves are large, rounded, kidney-shaped or weakly globular, green, antennae mostly branch. The flowers are large, bright yellow. The fruit is a false berry (pumpkin) of various shapes and colors. 3 types are widespread. Ordinary or [...]


1-year-old plant of the celery family. Comes from the Mediterranean. Nowadays, it is found everywhere. The stem is single, slightly branched. Leaves are dissected into linear slices. Small yellow flowers are collected in a complex umbrella inflorescence. Blooms in July-August. The seeds are small, brown and gray. They are harvested in August-September. The most common varieties are Armenian 269, Gribovsky, Uzbek 243, Superdukat OE. Early ripening, cold-resistant, not damaged by weak [...]


1 year old herb. There are about 20 species in culture. In the CIS, 2 types are cultivated - common beans and mung beans (golden beans). Lima and multiflower are sown in small sizes. Tepari and adzuki beans are promising. Common and lima beans provide vegetables and canned goods. Vegetable varieties of beans have a sugar bean - a paddle of yellow (waxy), green of various shades, variegated (yellow-violet) color. […]


Fennel (pharmaceutical dill) is a 2-year-old plant of the celery family.Comes from areas of the Mediterranean. In the wild, it is found in rocky places of the Crimea, Caucasus, Kopetdag. There are 2 forms of fennel - common and Italian, or vegetable. The height of the vegetable fennel plant is 40–60 cm. The leaves are repeatedly dissected into linear hair-like lobes. The leaf blades form a juicy thickening at the base, which is used for food. FROM […]


1-year-old plant of the nightshade family. It is widespread in South America, where there are a large number of its species - up to 75. Introduced to Europe and Asia in the 17th century. It entered Russia almost simultaneously with tomatoes, but did not receive any significant application. In the culture there are vegetable physalis, which are divided according to the place of origin into South American and Mexican. By […]

A perennial plant of the cabbage family with large long leaves, a thin, low-leafed flowering stem on old bushes and powerful roots 5 cm in diameter. The flowers are white, in rare elongated racemes. The fruit is a shortened pod with 2–4 dark red-brown seeds. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.3 g. Seeds in culture are rarely tied. The main and only way of horseradish breeding is vegetative - segments [...]

Chrysanthemum edible

1-year-old or perennial plant of the Aster family. Known in culture for over 2000 years. Origin - Southern Europe. Of the 1-year-olds, the crowned chrysanthemum or chamomile is the most popular. The stem is erect, slightly branched, 65–100 cm high. The leaves are juicy, with a delicate aroma, lanceolate, coarse-toothed, pair-pinnate, light green. The flowers are medium-sized, simple or double, white and cream-colored. Seeds are brown, elongated, small. Weight 1000 [...]

Common chicory

Perennial herb of the Aster family, with a fleshy root and erect stem, 30–120 cm high. It grows near roads, on wastelands, along river banks, among bushes. Cultivated as a food plant. In the roots of wild chicory — inulin (up to 40%), intibin glycoside, tannins, ascorbic acid (15.8 mg%), sugar, resin, fructose (up to 9.5%), levulose (up to 20%), pentosans ( 4.7-6.5%). In flowers - glycoside [...]

Chicory salad witloof

A perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, a close relative of the dandelion. In vegetable growing, the culture of the so-called cyclic salads has been practiced since ancient times, but in Western Europe it became known only from the 16th century. Chicory salads are valuable because they provide the table with excellent salad greens throughout the winter, even in the lowest light months when stocks of ordinary [...]

Chicory salad escariol

1- or 2-year-old plant of the Aster family. These varieties of salad chicory have been known in culture for a very long time, since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome. Both varieties are cultivated in significant numbers in Western Europe and North America. In our country, these valuable green crops are undeservedly forgotten. The root is small, woody, branched. The stem is erect, 50–90 cm tall. At the base of the stem [...]

Sweet savory

1-year-old plant of the family of lamines. Homeland - Southern Europe. It is used as a cheap spice plant and for this purpose it was specially grown in the monastery gardens. In the Caucasus, savory is found in a feral state on wastelands, rocky slopes. The plant is cultivated in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Altai, and Central Asia. The stem is branched, 30–70 cm tall, the leaves are linear-lanceolate, pointed, 1.5–2.5 cm long, [...]

Savory perennial

Semi-shrub of the family of lamines. Distributed in the south of the CIS, in countries adjacent to the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Plant height - 50-80 cm. Under favorable conditions it grows in one place for up to 5 years. Its stems are branched, lignified at the base. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, gray-green, slightly glossy. It blooms densely only in the 2nd year after sowing (from August to October). Flowers [...]


Chayote (Mexican cucumber) is a perennial plant of the pumpkin family. Homeland Central America. Widely distributed in Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, France, Spain, China and other countries. Unknown in the wild. Chayote first came to Russia in 1904, but he died during the First World War. It was brought to the USSR for the second time in 1931. Because of the high heat demand of chayote [...]

Bird cherry

Until recently, the bird cherry remained just an ornamental plant, the spring beauty of our parks and squares. However, it has now gained recognition as a remedy in both folk and scientific medicine. Therefore, bird cherry is increasingly appearing on the garden plots of amateur gardeners in many regions of the country. Nutritional and medicinal properties The composition of bird cherry fruits [...]


Bulbous plant of the lily family. One of the oldest vegetable crops. In the wild, it is found in the mountains of Central Asia, in the south of Kazakhstan, the Caucasus. The plant has a sharply shortened stem-bottom, in which roots are formed from below, and on the upper side there are numerous succulent, flat, lanceolate grooved, erect or drooping leaves. A garlic bulb consists of cloves, each of which is covered with tough [...]

Common lentils

1-year-old oldest herb, known in culture for 2000 years. e. In Central Asia and Transcaucasia, it has been cultivated since time immemorial. Distributed in many countries of Europe, Asia, North Africa, Ukraine, the Volga region, Armenia, Tajikistan. In the Penza, Saratov regions. The stem is straight or semi-creeping, slightly branched, 20–55 cm high. Leaves are compound, paired with 3–8 pairs [...]

Sowing rank

Sowing rank (clove) is a 1-year-old herb. It is cultivated in many countries for grain in the CIS - in the North Caucasus, in the Transcaucasia, forest-steppe regions, in the Volga region, Kursk, Voronezh, Chelyabinsk regions, Tatarstan and Bashkiria, in Western Siberia and Central Asia. Stem glabrous, 4-sided, weak, lodging or straight, 30-50 cm high and more. Leaves 1 -paired, less often 2-4-paired, oblong-lanceolate and [...]

Chufa (sat, earthen almonds) is a perennial tuberous oil-bearing plant of the sedge family. Homeland - Mediterranean. The main area of ​​industrial cultivation of chufa is Spain. The first crops in Russia date back to 1800. It is grown as an annual. Forms a dense bush of narrow leaves (up to 1 m) with a well-developed rhizome, consisting of numerous thin underground shoots, at the ends of which [...]


This thorny shrub, very aptly called the rose hips, is one of the most ancient in use and at the same time a new fruit plant. In early summer, the dog rose is decorated with large, fragrant flowers, very much like a rose. However, the wild rose is a rose, only wild. Cultivation of cultivated roses is also impossible without wild rose - after all, it is the main stock for these queens [...]

New Zealand spinach

1-year-old plant of the crystal family. Homeland - the coast of New Zealand and Australia. In the 18th century. the seeds were brought to England, from where they spread to various European countries. Creeping stems, branched, up to 1 m long. The root is branched, shallow in the soil. The leaves are diamond-shaped, thickened, juicy, dark green, short-petiolate. Flowers are yellow, solitary, axillary. Flowering is very extended and continues until [...]

Garden spinach

Garden spinach (botsai) is a 1-year-old plant of the haze family. The very name of spinach botsai speaks of its origin. "Botsay" in the exact translation into Russian - "grass from Persia." In Russia - from the middle of the 18th century. Found in the wild in the Caucasus. In culture, it is grown everywhere. The plant is 25-50 cm tall. At the beginning of the growing season gives a rosette of succulent leaves used [...]


Perennial herb of the buckwheat family, grows everywhere.Sorrel greens are a spring treat even in the northern regions of the region. Once the village people rejoiced at the meeting of Mavrin of the day, treating everyone with green cabbage soup. In the popular month, this day is May 16. So they nicknamed "Mavra - green cabbage soup". Taproot, branched, stem 30–70 cm high. Basal leaves are petiolate, ovate-oblong upper leaves are almost [...]


Perennial herb of the Aster family. It is found in the southeastern regions of the European part of the CIS, Siberia, the Far East, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It is cultivated in Transcaucasia, where it is called tarragon. The homeland of tarragon wormwood, apparently, is Siberia. The plant is tall, up to 150 cm, with straight stems and long, elongated leaves. Whitish small flowers are collected in a narrow panicle inflorescence. Blossoms [...]

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