Read the previous part. ← Growing seedlings of peppers and eggplants
As with peppers, tomato yield is highly dependent on the quality and age of the seedlings. To get what you want, the seeds must be sown after March 10th.
However, it should be noted that varieties with different ripening periods bloom at different times. Therefore, late-ripening varieties need to be sown 7-10 days earlier, and super-early-ripening varieties, which are now obtained by breeders, can be sown in the last decade of March and even at the beginning of April.
Tomato is a thermophilic culture, but lower temperatures are sufficient for it than for peppers. So, if for the normal growth of peppers seedlings 18-25 ° C are required, then 15 ° C and above are enough for tomatoes. At 10 ° C, the growth of tomatoes stops (for peppers - 13 ° C). Another difference from peppers is that tomato seedlings grow strong only with a certain balance of temperature, moisture and light. If this balance is disturbed, then the plants instantly stretch out strongly, and this is already a lost crop. The hardest thing about growing tomato seedlings - do not allow the seedlings to be pulled out.
Tomato seeds are sown in the same way as peppers, and also process them before sowing with potassium permanganate. Many experts believe that cold treatment of sprouted seeds does not give any effect, in contrast to hardening seedlings before planting in the ground. They are sown with a margin so that the strongest plants can be selected when picking. Crops are kept at a temperature of 22-25 ° C. As soon as the first shoots loops appear, the film is removed from the crops, the crops are transferred to the windowsill, in the brightest and coolest place. The first 4 -5 days the temperature should be no higher than 14-17 ° С during the day and 10-12 С - at night. If some plants have crawled out of the ground with a "cap", it is necessary to wet it with water several times a day to get it wet, and try to pull it off the plant if it cannot cope with this work itself.
Tomatoes - very light-loving plants. The more light they receive, the better they grow and the less they stretch. They spread their leaves wide to capture more light. They must be constantly spaced away from each other so that they do not shade neighbors and do not stretch out. It turns out that tomatoes take up a lot of space on the windowsills. If the plants are too crowded, you need to reduce their number, acting on the principle of "less is more". We will not lose from this in the harvest.
Further care is normal. To prevent the plants from stretching, it is necessary to limit watering: water when the plant is about to wither. Excessive watering is very dangerous for seedlings - they can get sick and die. If a fertile soil, good seedlings will grow without top dressing.
Otherwise, feeding is a must. Either with each watering, like peppers, or at the stage of the 2-3rd true leaf, when flower buds are laid in the plant, and then every 10-14 days.
If possible, it is necessary to take the seedlings out into the fresh air - she loves it. Plants that will later grow in the open field must be hardened before planting in the beds: first, gradually accustom them to outdoor conditions during the day, and then leave them outside and at night.
Read all parts of the article "Growing seedlings for a new harvest"
Part 1: Growing seedlings for a new crop
Part 2: Growing Celery and Parsley Seedlings
Part 3: Growing Pepper and Eggplant Seedlings
Part 4: Growing tomato seedlings
Part 5: Growing Leek and Cabbage Seedlings
Part 6: Timing of growing seedlings for different crops
L. Bobrovskaya experienced gardener
Growing tomato seedlings - garden and vegetable garden
The result of growing vegetables largely depends on the seedlings. It should be strong, healthy, not too elongated, and with a good root system.
When growing seedlings loose soil is required in boxes and pots. A good option is a mixture of three components of equal volume: compost, coarse sand and garden soil (garden mixture), and, if possible, soil from molehills. For good drainage, a layer of fine gravel should be placed at the bottom of the box, and crushed eggshells should be placed on top. Drainage is also necessary in cases of sowing seeds in small cups, always with several holes in the bottom. In these cases, the seedlings will later have to be dived into larger pots. Diving can be avoided if you initially sow seeds in half-liter plastic cups and grow seedlings in them until they are planted in the ground. Cups with seedlings are placed on grates, and boxes on legs or slats to allow excess water to drain freely, and to some extent improve the supply of air to the root system for the normal development of seedlings.
Important conditions getting good seedlings - proper watering, lighting. The soil must be watered before sowing the seeds, but not after, since otherwise the seeds are washed off, unevenly deepened, and clumped together. The next watering should be carried out with a sprayer with a fine-hole nozzle, preferably with a weak solution of potassium permanganate with a temperature of 23-24 ° C. The formation of a crust, which has a detrimental effect on seed germination, must not be allowed. A moderate humidity regime is required. Frequent and abundant watering causes the seedlings to stretch. Excessive humidity is especially dangerous in low light conditions. To improve the light regime, place the seedling pots less often on sunny windowsills and as close to the glass as possible. Enhance the lighting with a reflective effect: build the boards out of cardboard or plywood sheets and cover them with foil. They will not only enhance the lighting, but also add warmth when the sun's rays fall on the windowsill.
When transplanting plants from box to box it should be remembered that they do not like to be touched.
Therefore, when transplanting, you need to take up the root ball. The best time for picks is in the evening, when the plants are easier to tolerate injury.
First time feed seedlings two weeks after diving with superphosphate and wood ash (a teaspoon per 3 liters of water), spending half a glass per pot. After another two weeks, a second top dressing is carried out - with nitrophos or complex fertilizer (a teaspoon per 3 liters of water), combining top dressing with watering. These feeding norms are not dogmas. It is necessary to take into account the fertilization of the soil used or its mixture when planting seedlings, so as not to harm the plants.
Over time, the soil in the pots compresses itself, so it is necessary to make a bedding.
Elongated plants are the result of excessive diligence of the vegetable grower: excessive watering, non-observance of the temperature regime. As a rule, seedlings acquire a pale green color. It should be fed with urea (a teaspoon per 3 liters of water), moved to a place where the air temperature is 10 ° C, and stop watering. After a short time, plant growth will stop. They will acquire their characteristic color, and they are again placed in places with a favorable temperature regime for them.
When growing seedlings keep her from overgrowing in the April days. To balance the growth of the aerial organs and the root system, it is necessary to ensure the proper temperature. For example, tomatoes need an elevated temperature: in sunny weather - 22-24 ° С, in cloudy - 16-18 ° С, at night -12-14 ° С, for cabbage, it is desirable in sunny weather - 18-20 ° С, in cloudy - 14-16 ° С during the day, 10-12 ° С at night.
Seven days before planting in the ground, the seedlings are subjected to temperature and light hardening. Gradually, over four days, lower the temperature (for example, to 8-10 ° C for cabbage and 12-14 ° C for tomatoes). Then the seedlings are taken out under the open sky: first for four hours, the next day for half a day, then for the whole day, and then for the whole day.
Well-hardened seedlings have a fibrous, developed root system, a thick stem with leaves of a dark green color characteristic of a plant, and short internodes.
Experienced gardeners achieve good results in growing seedlings at the final stage in the open field of the greenhouse. This is done as follows: at the end of April (depending on the temperature regime), the seedlings are planted in a greenhouse on a garden bed at a distance of 10 cm from each other and 15 cm between rows. Additionally, foil-coated temples are installed. Once every ten days, the shelter is ventilated, the plants are fed. In the event of a drop in night temperatures, additional cover with film or paper is carried out.
Seedlings of various plant species have their own age limit, exceeding which does not accelerate, but retards the growth and ripening of fruits and reduces the yield. Practice confirms that for pumpkin seeds this age is about a month, for tomatoes - a little more than two, cabbage - about two months. Knowing the favorable timing of planting seedlings in their zone in open and closed ground, it is not difficult to calculate the timing of sowing seeds.
You cannot rush to plant seedlings and sow seeds in open ground and in a greenhouse. In spring, frosts are often detrimental to young plants. Planting in cold soil inhibits seedling growth and seed germination. It is also undesirable to be late with sowing and planting, you can lose the harvest: the plants ripen later. When what to sow, nature prompts - this natural regulator of garden affairs. In early spring, the common coltsfoot is among the first to bloom. At this time, the gardener must be ready to till the soil. It is carried out simultaneously with loosening lumps with a rake and sowing without a break in time, but the soil must be "ripe" - warm enough. The best time to plant many crops is when certain wild plants are in bloom. For example, carrots can be sown when aspen and willow are in bloom. Turnips, parsley, peas, radishes, radishes, dill, onions are best sown at the same time. The maple has bloomed - it's time to sow the beets. Dandelion has bloomed - plant potatoes. Rowan and lilac bloomed - it's time to sow cucumbers and plant seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, physalis.
Three main points of diving tomatoes
Hello dear gardeners, growing tomato seedlings through seedlings with further diving, in my opinion, is the most reliable way.
This method is the simplest and has a number of advantages over the no-dive option.
But after about 10-12 days, the moment comes when young seedlings need to be planted, providing the plants with a larger area of nutrition.
This is a pretty crucial moment in growing all tomato seedlings.
This is perhaps the fundamental point. By shortening the central root when transplanting, we force the seedlings to form a fibrous root system with a large number of adventitious roots.
This allows the plant in the future to form a powerful root system in the arable, the most fertile layer of the soil and thereby obtain a larger yield.
Dive opponents it is often said that leaving the central root will go deep and provide the plant with moisture, which is very beneficial, especially in arid regions.
Preparation for a dive
Before we start diving seedlings, we need to prepare.
The first , to prepare high-quality soil, I already wrote how to make it, the quality of the seedlings and the convenience of planting it will largely depend on its quality.
Second , pick up seedling pots or cassettes.
The volume of the pots will depend on the estimated age of the seedlings, the older the seedlings need to be grown, the larger the pots should be, more often young seedlings are grown in cassettes for planting by machines in the fields.
I use 1 liter pots, this allows the seedlings to grow until the first buds are formed.
The pots, of course, need to be numbered according to the variety that we will pick out. Holes in the bottom of the pots are desirable, so there will be less risk of overflowing the seedlings and of course the air access will be improved for the roots, which is also important.
We fill the pots with soil by two-thirds, leaving a place for bedding, this is an important technique when growing tomato seedlings, which allows you to keep it from pulling out, while increasing the number of adventitious roots.
Further in the soil, we make a depression to the bottom, we will lower the seedling into it.
I remove the seedlings from the small containers in which they grow by soaking so that they can be removed without breaking the roots.
With this extraction, it is very noticeable long central root, which should be pinched two thirds.
We place the dived seedling in the prepared recess approximately up to the cotyledon leaves and, holding the leaf into the recess, pour water. So the water will suck in and spread the roots in depth.
If the seedlings are strongly elongated, then they do not need to be buried right up to the cotyledon leaves, it is enough to deepen them in half, so as not to accidentally pinch the still thin stalk.
Slightly compact the soil near the stem.
After diving, it is advisable not to water the seedlings for several days, until its growth is noticeable.
Diving tomato seedlings in this way has not been for many years, I have never been disappointed in its simplicity and effectiveness.
There was no seedling death, no growth inhibition.
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That's all for today, goodbye, see you soon.
It all starts with preparing the ground. It is harvested in the fall:
- Pour in two buckets and put it somewhere in a cold place for the whole winter.
- In February, bring it into the apartment, wait for the earth to completely warm up, and pour it into a large basin.
- Add there the soil for seedlings bought in the store, two glasses of ash, a package of a microbiological preparation that converts organic matter into compost, mix everything well and pour it into a large black garbage bag (it must be opaque).
- Squeeze all the air out of it and leave it in a dark place for two weeks.
This land is not watered with boiling water or potassium permanganate. And at the same time, it turns out without harmful bacteria (they either froze out or died from the drug), and is slightly damp after thawing (and cannot dry out, since it is clogged in a bag).
In mid-February (according to the lunar calendar), pour the earth into five-liter water bottles with a cut off top, put the seeds of the ultra-ripe Sanka variety (disinfected the day before in aloe juice) and cover them with a ten-centimeter layer of dry soil.
As the seedlings grow, you add earth to it, then it does not stretch out and a pick is no longer required.
The next step is sowing. Tall tomatoes are at the end of February, and the main crop - "simple" tomatoes - in mid-March. If you do not get good germination, carry out another additional sowing at the end of March.
In the garden, many gardeners have installed, if not a greenhouse, but a modest greenhouse 1 × 5 m, in which all the tomatoes can be planted for growing seedlings. When return frosts pass, move your pets into open ground with your head to the north: cut off 2/3 of the leaves, leave the crown and three leaves, put them in a small hole, fill them with water, cover them with earth.
Place tall tomatoes immediately under the trellis prepared in advance and tie to them, then form them into two stems and pinch the tomatoes.
But the rest (simple) tomatoes can not be attached to anything, but simply let them "free flight".
Under the brushes, so that the fruits do not rot, put newspapers in two or three layers, mulch.Water rarely, but from the heart.
And when, after a long break, you come to the country house, you will see the land strewn with green, yellow and red fruits.
Very nice! Feed tomatoes only with fresh mullein.
Feeding tomatoes with milk
There is also a little secret in growing tomato seedlings - water it with diluted milk (50 grams per 0.5 liters of water). Quite calmly buy the cheapest milk, dilute it with water and treat your seedlings with it.
There is one more method, no less interesting for the experiment, for growing seedlings of large tomatoes, on kefir.
For growing tomato seedlings, boxes 10-13 cm high are convenient.Place charcoal, fine gravel or straw on the bottom (so that water does not stagnate) and pour a layer of earth 5-6 cm thick.At a distance of 3 cm from each other, make grooves deep and wide 3-4 mm and pour them for disinfection with a hot solution of potassium permanganate. After that, place the seeds in them, lightly sprinkle with earth and press down with a ruler.
Wrap the boxes in plastic wrap (or cover with glass) and place in a warm place. After five to six days, when the first shoots hatch, free the boxes from shelters and rearrange them on the windowsills, closer to the sun.
To prevent the seedlings from stretching, reduce watering (use only warm water - 22-23 ° C) and lower the night temperature by opening the window slightly.
Sprinkle earth when a black leg appears. As soon as two or three leaves appear on the sprouts, add soil (always warm and loose) and additional roots quickly form on the sprinkled parts of the stems.
Do not feed tomatoes in boxes. Plant in the greenhouse from about 9 to 20 April, and plant tomatoes in open ground from 9 to 20 May.
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How to feed tomato seedlings
Greetings, dear friends!
Today I will talk about how to feed tomato seedlings in the presence of signs of "starvation" of plants.
Any summer cottage season in late winter or early spring begins with growing seedlings. The crop yield directly depends on the quality of the seedlings. You can follow the path of least resistance and purchase ready-made seedlings, immediately before planting them in open ground, a greenhouse or a greenhouse.
However, many gardeners prefer to grow seedlings on their own, from proven material, thus insuring themselves against misgrading and other surprises.
Tomato seeds planted in February-March in planting containers begin their vegetative period, delighting the gardener with friendly shoots. If you used a high-quality fertile soil mixture, rich in all the necessary nutrient compounds, and the seeds were previously disinfected and treated with a special solution to enhance growth and enrichment with microelements, then your pets do not need feeding.
An overabundance of individual elements can lead to the opposite of the desired result - plants grow a powerful green mass, but the number of fruits on each bush is minimal. An indicator of the normal development of seedlings is their appearance. The deep green color of the leaves and the dense structure of the stems with a slight purple tint indicate the health of your seedlings.
But sometimes, in an apartment, when the root system of seedlings stays in a confined space for a long time, moreover, with a lack of light, the leaves in the lower part of the bushes begin to turn yellow, and the plants become thinner and stretch upward. In such cases, fertilizing with the necessary substances should be carried out, the choice of which depends on the condition of the seedlings.
Signs of nutritional deficiencies in tomato seedlings
1. Deficiency of nitrogen compounds. Plants react to a lack of nitrogen by yellowing the lower layer of leaves and dropping them. At the same time, an excess of these substances is manifested by the yellowing of the entire green mass of seedlings.
2. Deficiency of phosphorus. The seedlings react to the lack of this compound with a violet color of the underside of the leaf apparatus and veins.
3. Potassium deficiency. The lack of potassium components in the soil is manifested by wrinkling of young leaves. If the plants are not fed, then the fruits will ripen unevenly. It should be noted that tomatoes are quite demanding on potassium.
4. Iron deficiency. Plants suffer from chlorosis in excessive light. Round-the-clock supplementary lighting of seedlings is as harmful as a lack of lighting.
According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, feeding tomatoes is carried out (taking into account the listed signs) 10-12 days after the pick. The second feeding is carried out after 2 weeks. Usually 2-3 dressings are enough until the seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
How to feed tomato seedlings
- Complex fertilizers, available in a wide range, are used when the seedlings have a sickly appearance and signs of a deficiency of several substances at the same time.
- It is advisable to use a solution of urea or ammonium nitrate when there is a lack of nitrogen. For 5 liters of clean, settled water, 2 grams of the composition is taken.
- Superphosphate solution is used for phosphorus deficiency. 16-18 grams of crystals are dissolved in 5 liters of water.
- Potassium sulfate solution is useful for signs of potassium deficiency. For 5 liters of water, 6 grams of fertilizer is used.
- Plant ash is an excellent alternative to phosphate and potash fertilizers. Experienced gardeners water the tomato seedlings with ash infusion. For 5 liters of water add 5 tbsp. tablespoons of sifted ash (the composition is insisted for 3-5 days).
- With a deficiency of a trace element iron, the bushes are treated from a spray bottle with a hypotonic solution (sodium chloride, 0.2-0.5%).
Before any top dressing, the seedlings need to be watered with high quality.
Additional recipes for feeding tomato seedlings
- Iodine solution activates growth processes, enhances plant immunity (protects fromlate blight) and promotes the ripening of larger fruits. 1/4 liter of whole milk and 2-4 drops of alcoholic iodine tincture are taken per liter of water.
- Foliar dressing of seedlings with iodine (used for abundant spraying of plants) is prepared in the following way: a liter of milk plus 15 drops of alcoholic tincture of iodine is dissolved in a bucket of water.
Knowing how to feed tomato seedlings and other vegetables, you can easily do this if necessary, and green pets, in turn, will delight you with abundant fruiting in summer. Have a good harvest! See you!
Growing seedlings without soil in toilet paper
A very interesting and modern way. This requires a roll of toilet paper and plastic wrap. Put paper on the wet film, put the tomato seeds at a distance of one centimeter and roll them up.
When the first true leaves appear, the roll is rolled out, the covering layer of the film is removed. In order not to damage the root, when planting in the ground, the seedling is taken with a piece of paper and carefully transplanted. It is imperative to make a pick.