Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer: How To Use Ammonium Nitrate In Gardens

Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer: How To Use Ammonium Nitrate In Gardens

By: Bonnie L. Grant, Certified Urban Agriculturist

One of the key needs for successful plant growth is nitrogen. This macro-nutrient is responsible for the leafy, green production of a plant and enhances overall health. Nitrogen is derived from the atmosphere, but this form has a strong chemical bond that is difficult for plants to uptake. Easier forms of nitrogen that occur in processed fertilizers include ammonium nitrate. What is ammonium nitrate? This type of fertilizer has been widely used since the 1940’s. It is a fairly simple compound to make and is inexpensive, making it a top choice for agricultural professionals.

What is Ammonium Nitrate?

Nitrogen comes in many forms. This major plant nutrient can be taken in by plants through the roots or from the stoma in the leaves and stems. Additional sources of nitrogen are often added to soil and plants in areas without sufficient natural sources of nitrogen.

One of the first solid nitrogen sources produced in a large scale capacity is ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is the most common use of the compound, but it also has a very volatile nature, which makes it useful in certain industries.

Ammonium nitrate is an odorless, nearly colorless crystal salt. Using ammonium nitrate in gardens and large scale agricultural fields enhances plant growth and provides a ready supply of nitrogen from which plants can draw.

Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is a simple compound to make. It is created when ammonia gas reacts with nitric acid. The chemical reaction produces a concentrated form of ammonium nitrate, which produces prodigious amounts of heat. As a fertilizer, the compound is applied as granules, and fused with ammonium sulfate to minimize the volatile nature of the compound. Anti- caking agents are also added to the fertilizer.

Other Uses for Ammonium Nitrate

In addition to its usefulness as a fertilizer, ammonium nitrate is also employed in certain industrial and construction settings. The chemical compound is explosive and useful in mining, demolition activities and quarry work.

The granules are very porous and can absorb large amounts of fuel. Exposure to fire will cause a long, sustained and large explosion. In most cases, the compound is very stable and can only become explosive in certain conditions.

Food preservation is another area that is using ammonium nitrate. The compound makes an excellent cold pack when one bag of water and one bag of the compound are united. Temperatures can drop to 2 or 3 degrees Celsius very rapidly.

How to Use Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate in gardens is made stable with other compounds. The fertilizer is an almost instantly useable form of nitrogen due to its porosity and solubility. It provides nitrogen from both the ammonia and the nitrate.

The standard method of application is by broadcast spreading the granules. These will rapidly melt in water to allow the nitrogen to release into soil. The rate of application is 2/3 to 1 1/3 cup (157.5 – 315 ml.) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer per 1,000 square feet (93 sq. m.) of land. After broadcasting the compound, it should be tilled in or watered in very thoroughly. The nitrogen will move quickly through the soil to the roots of the plant for rapid uptake.

The most common uses for the fertilizer are in vegetable gardens and in hay and pasture fertilization due to the high nitrogen content.

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Ammonium nitrate process

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It is a soluble salt. Right away we can eliminate precipitation. We are left with reacting excess metal/carbonate/base with acid or titration. Titration is used for sodium, potassium and ammonium salts. So there we go, its titration. Titration is .

Most of the processes that involve ammonium and nitrate are part of the nitrogen cycle (figure 2). The most important step is the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, known as nitrification. This process consists of various steps and is mediated by autotrophic, obligate aerobic bacteria, meaning that oxygen is required.

The Haber process now produces 450 million tonnes of nitrogen fertilizer per year, mostly in the form of anhydrous ammonia, ammonium nitrate, and urea. Three to five percent of the world's natural gas production is consumed in the Haber process (around 1–2% of the world's energy supply).

Ammonium nitrate is an odorless, nearly colorless crystal salt. Using ammonium nitrate in gardens and large scale agricultural fields enhances plant growth and provides a ready supply of nitrogen from which plants can draw. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is a simple compound to make. It is created when ammonia gas is reacted with nitric acid.

Ammonium nitrate is commercially available both as a colorless crystalline solid and processed into prills for specific applications. Soluble in water. Does not readily burn but will do so if contaminated with combustible material. Accelerates the burning of combustible material. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion.

1. in a process for producing ammonium nitrate by reacting nitric acid and ammonia at elevated temperature and continuously removing steam and molten ammonium nitrate as reaction products, the improvement which comprises dissolving from about 5% to about 30% solid ammonium nitrate by weight in the nitic acid feed.

While some heat is produced when the ammonium nitrate ions interact with the water molecules (i.e., an exothermic reaction), it is a lot less than what is needed for the water molecules to disperse the strong ionic bonds of the ammonium nitrate, so the overall process is an endothermic reaction, or one that absorbs energy from its surroundings.

Solid ammonium nitrate is made up of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate ions (NO3-) held together by ionic bonds in a closely-packed crystal lattice. When solid ammonium nitrate comes in contact with water, the polar water molecules will interact with th.

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A solution of urea [CO(NH2)2] and ammonium nitrate [NH4NO3] containing between 28 and 32 percent nitrogen (N) is the most popular fluid N fertilizer. Production. Liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizer is relatively simple to produce.

Process and production of ammonium nitrate CSBP operates three world-class nitric acid and ammonium nitrate production facilities in Australia and a prill facility at its Kwinana complex. Each of these plants is able to produce 260,000 metric tonnes of ammonium nitrate annually.

Urea Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) Complete integrated facility design combining urea, ammonium nitrate, nitric acid and UAN that provides efficient and cost-effective production of UAN solution. Patented partial recycle urea process that results in overall higher raw material yields compared to non-integrated processes. Hydrogen

Ammonium Nitrate porous prills is generated as the final product. This detailed study presents breakdowns for both capital investment and manufacturing costs of a plant based on this Ammonium Nitrate manufacturing process. It also includes feedstock consumption figures.

Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion, Suspension, or Gel is ammonium nitrate suspended in a liquid. The material itself does not readily burn but will readily do so if contaminated by combustible material. It will accelerate the burning of combustible material. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced during combustion during combustion of this material.

The most common process to produce solid ammonium nitrate with the spherical shape is prilling process. A prill tower is used to produce the prills of solid ammonium nitrate. On the top of the prill tower, the concentrated melt of ammonium nitrate melt is sprayed, and on the bottom of the prill tower, an air is rising by a blower.

2.3 Process Water Sources and Quantities 13 . UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE (UAN) PRODUCTION 29 9.1 Overview of UAN Process Technology 29 9.2 Description of Production Processes 29 9.3 Description of Storage and Transfer Equipment 31 9.4 Environmental Data 31 9.5 Emission Monitoring 32

CAN is a substitute for ammonium nitrate where it is not allowed. Intratec offers professional, easy-to-understand reports examining Calcium Ammonium Nitrate production. Each study describes an industrial plant, including main process units and site infrastructure, and presents an independent analysis of capital and operating costs.

Most of the processes that involve ammonium and nitrate are part of the nitrogen cycle (figure 2). The most important step is the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, known as nitrification. This process consists of various steps and is mediated by autotrophic, obligate aerobic bacteria, meaning that oxygen is required.

2.3 Process Water Sources and Quantities 13 . UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE (UAN) PRODUCTION 29 9.1 Overview of UAN Process Technology 29 9.2 Description of Production Processes 29 9.3 Description of Storage and Transfer Equipment 31 9.4 Environmental Data 31 9.5 Emission Monitoring 32

Ammonium nitrate, production (tonnes) (NH4NO3), is produced by neutralizing nitric acid (HNO3) with ammonia (NH3). Ammonium nitrate may be in white or off-white granular or prilled form and coated with a suitable material to prevent absorption of moisture and caking in storage.

Solid ammonium nitrate is stored and shipped in either bulk or bags. Approximately 10 percent of solid ammonium nitrate produced in the U. S. is bagged. 8.3.3 Emissions And Controls Emissions from ammonium nitrate production plants are particulate matter (ammonium nitrate and coating materials), ammonia, and nitric acid.

Ammonium (NH 4 +) and nitrate (NO 3-) are the two forms in which plants can directly utilize nitrogen from the soil.Upon application of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, it easily dissociates into these two forms. When urea-based fertilizers are used, conversion of urea to ammonium occurs for a period of one day to one week, and some amount of nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere in the process.

Ammonium nitrate in combination with certain additives is widely used as a type of explosive known as a blasting agent. Ammonium nitrate is also used as a fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate is suspected as the source of the explosion at the West Fertilizer Company.14

    Authors: Dana A Shea · Lindajo Schierow · Scott SzymenderaAbout: Environmental protection · Ammonia Get price

Ammonium nitrate dissolves in water with an endothermic reaction, a chemical reaction that consumes heat rather than releasing it. The temperature of the solution is lower than the starting temperature of either component chemical. Ammonium nitrate's solubility increases as the water temperature rises.

Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion, Suspension, or Gel is ammonium nitrate suspended in a liquid. The material itself does not readily burn but will readily do so if contaminated by combustible material. It will accelerate the burning of combustible material. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced during combustion during combustion of this material.

Ammonium Nitrate is one of the most commercially important ammonium compounds. It is mainly used in agriculture, as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and in mining as an important component of some explosives. Intratec offers professional, easy-to-understand reports examining Ammonium Nitrate production.

Aug 08, 2009 · A demonstration of the endothermic nature of the dissolving process for Ammonium Nitrate. *Note - This and all demonstrations should only be performed by qualified personnel. Proper safety .

Solid ammonium nitrate is made up of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate ions (NO3-) held together by ionic bonds in a closely-packed crystal lattice. When solid ammonium nitrate comes in contact with water, the polar water molecules will interact with th.

Ammonium nitrate was the first solid nitrogen (N) fertilizer produced on a large scale, but its popularity has declined in recent years. It's been a common N source because it contains both nitrate and ammonium, and it has a relatively high nutrient content. Production

And at atmospheric pressure in the granulation of ammonium nitrate production process, the raw material according to the concentration of dilute nitric acid and dilute nitric acid, ammonia gas preheating extent, determines the number of segments using an evaporator . 44

47%, such as nitric acid and ammonia, requires the use of two to three segments evaporation, the ammonium nitrate .

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Epsom salt consists simply of magnesium sulfate. Magnesium aids in chlorophyll production in plants. Sulfur gives plants protein and other enzymes necessary for them to grow strong. Sulfur is naturally delivered to plants through rain, but often they need a little boost. Blossom end rot is also a sign. Epsom salt, while a plant less than 12 inches high will do with 1 tbsp. This will keep the foliage green and also increase the thickness of the walls of the fruit, making for a delicious tomato.

  • Mix 2 cups vinegar, 1 cup ammonia and 5 gallons of water in a bucket.
  • Sulfur is naturally delivered to plants through rain, but often they need a little boost.

The ammonia formula listed is for a large garden with 10 or more tomato plants. Cut the solution by half or even one-fourth if you have a smaller garden.


What makes ammonium nitrate explode?

By itself, ammonium nitrate is not regarded as dangerous but under certain conditions, it can become deadly.

The chemical is classified as an “energetic material” meaning that it produces heat as it decomposes.

If there is a significant amount of ammonium nitrate it can generate enough heat to catch fire and continue to burn eventually causing an explosion.

When mixed with fuel oils, the chemical creates a potent explosive that is widely used in the construction industry.

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Most countries have regulations controlling the storage of ammonium nitrate to make it safe.

The chemical made the news again after a huge explosion in Beirut caused the death of 100 people and nearly 4,000 injuries.

It was reported that 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate was stored in a warehouse for six years without safety measures.

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Answering Questions

What is ammonia used for?

About 90 percent of ammonia produced is used in fertilizer, to help sustain food production for billions of people around the world. Ammonia has other important uses for example in household cleaning products and in manufacturing other products.

What is ammonia?

Ammonia, also known as NH3, is a colorless gas with a distinct odor composed of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. It is produced naturally in the human body and in nature—in water, soil and air, even in tiny bacteria molecules. In human health, ammonia and the ammonium ion are vital components of metabolic processes.

What happens to ammonia in the environment?

Ammonia occurs naturally and is found throughout the environment in soil, air, and water. Ammonia also is renewed naturally as part of the nitrogen cycle that already occurs as plants fertilize. As a result of this natural process, ammonia does not last long in the environment, and it also does not bioaccumulate.

What does ammonia smell like?

Ammonia has a very distinct, pungent odor, described as similar to sweat or cat urine. Strong, briny cheeses like brie can also smell like ammonia. Cheeses even have small amounts of ammonia in them, as a natural by-product of the cheese aging process.

How might I be exposed to ammonia?

Ammonia occurs naturally in the environment, so everyone is exposed to low levels at one point or another. It is possible for a person to be exposed to higher levels of ammonia when using cleaning products containing ammonia, or if they live on or near farms where fertilizers are used. It’s also possible to be exposed to higher levels of ammonia if a person spends time in an enclosed building that contains lots of animals.

How can ammonia exposure affect my health?

No health effects have been found in humans exposed to typical amounts of ammonia that exist in the environment. Exposure to high levels of ammonia in air may be irritating to a person’s skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and cause coughing and burns.

What is ammonia used for?

About 90 percent of ammonia produced is used in fertilizer, to help sustain food production for billions of people around the world. Ammonia has other important uses for example in household cleaning products and in manufacturing other products.

What is ammonia?

Ammonia, also known as NH3, is a colorless gas with a distinct odor composed of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. It is produced naturally in the human body and in nature—in water, soil and air, even in tiny bacteria molecules. In human health, ammonia and the ammonium ion are vital components of metabolic processes.

What happens to ammonia in the environment?

Ammonia occurs naturally and is found throughout the environment in soil, air, and water. Ammonia also is renewed naturally as part of the nitrogen cycle that already occurs as plants fertilize. As a result of this natural process, ammonia does not last long in the environment, and it also does not bioaccumulate.

What does ammonia smell like?

Ammonia has a very distinct, pungent odor, described as similar to sweat or cat urine. Strong, briny cheeses like brie can also smell like ammonia. Cheeses even have small amounts of ammonia in them, as a natural by-product of the cheese aging process.

How might I be exposed to ammonia?

Ammonia occurs naturally in the environment, so everyone is exposed to low levels at one point or another. It is possible for a person to be exposed to higher levels of ammonia when using cleaning products containing ammonia, or if they live on or near farms where fertilizers are used. It’s also possible to be exposed to higher levels of ammonia if a person spends time in an enclosed building that contains lots of animals.

How can ammonia exposure affect my health?

No health effects have been found in humans exposed to typical amounts of ammonia that exist in the environment. Exposure to high levels of ammonia in air may be irritating to a person’s skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and cause coughing and burns.


Texas fertilizer plant had 1,350 times the amount of ammonium nitrate that would normally raise red flags

NEW YORK - The fertilizer plant that exploded on Wednesday, obliterating part of a small Texas town and killing at least 14 people, had last year been storing 1,350 times the amount of ammonium nitrate that would normally trigger safety oversight by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

Yet a person familiar with DHS operations said the company that owns the plant, West Fertilizer, did not tell the agency about the potentially explosive fertilizer as it is required to do, leaving one of the principal regulators of ammonium nitrate - which can also be used in bomb making - unaware of any danger there.

Fertilizer plants and depots must report to the DHS when they hold 400 lb (180 kg) or more of the substance. Filings this year with the Texas Department of State Health Services, which weren't shared with DHS, show the plant had 270 tons of it on hand last year.

A U.S. congressman and several safety experts called into question on Friday whether incomplete disclosure or regulatory gridlock may have contributed to the disaster.

"It seems this manufacturer was willfully off the grid," Rep. Bennie Thompson, (D-MS), ranking member of the House Committee on Homeland Security, said in a statement. "This facility was known to have chemicals well above the threshold amount to be regulated under the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Act (CFATS), yet we understand that DHS did not even know the plant existed until it blew up."

Company officials did not return repeated calls seeking comment on its handling of chemicals and reporting practices. Late on Friday, plant owner Donald Adair released a general statement expressing sorrow over the incident but saying West Fertilizer would have little further comment while it cooperated with investigators to try to determine what happened.

"This tragedy will continue to hurt deeply for generations to come," Adair said in the statement.

Failure to report significant volumes of hazardous chemicals at a site can lead the DHS to fine or shut down fertilizer operations, a person familiar with the agency's monitoring regime said. Though the DHS has the authority to carry out spot inspections at facilities, it has a small budget for that and only a "small number" of field auditors, the person said.

Firms are responsible for self reporting the volumes of ammonium nitrate and other volatile chemicals they hold to the DHS, which then helps measure plant risks and devise security and safety plans based on them.

Since the agency never received any so-called top-screen report from West Fertilizer, the facility was not regulated or monitored by the DHS under its CFAT standards, largely designed to prevent sabotage of sites and to keep chemicals from falling into criminal hands.

The DHS focuses "specifically on enhancing security to reduce the risk of terrorism at certain high-risk chemical facilities," said agency spokesman Peter Boogaard. "The West Fertilizer Co. facility in West, Texas is not currently regulated under the CFATS program."

The West Fertilizer facility was subject to other reporting, permitting and safety programs, spread across at least seven state and federal agencies, a patchwork of regulation that critics say makes it difficult to ensure thorough oversight.

An expert in chemical safety standards said the two major federal government programs that are supposed to ensure chemical safety in industry - led by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) - do not regulate the handling or storage of ammonium nitrate. That task falls largely to the DHS and the local and state agencies that oversee emergency planning and response.

More than 4,000 sites nationwide are subject to the DHS program.

"This shows that the enforcement routine has to be more robust, on local, state and federal levels," said the expert, Sam Mannan, director of process safety center at Texas A&M University. "If information is not shared with agencies, which appears to have happened here, then the regulations won't work."

Chemical safety experts and local officials suspect this week's blast was caused when ammonium nitrate was set ablaze. Authorities suspect the disaster was an industrial accident, but haven't ruled out other possibilities.

The fertilizer is considered safe when stored properly, but can explode at high temperatures and when it reacts with other substances.

"I strongly believe that if the proper safeguards were in place, as are at thousands of (DHS) CFATS-regulated plants across the country, the loss of life and destruction could have been far less extensive," said Rep. Thompson.

A blaze was reported shortly before a massive explosion leveled dozens of homes and blew out an apartment building.

A U-Haul truck packed with the substance mixed with fuel oil exploded to raze the Oklahoma federal building in 1995. Another liquid gas fertilizer kept on the West Fertilizer site, anhydrous ammonia, is subject to DHS reporting and can explode under extreme heat.

Wednesday's blast heightens concerns that regulations governing ammonium nitrate and other chemicals - present in at least 6,000 depots and plants in farming states across the country - are insufficient. The facilities serve farmers in rural areas that typically lack stringent land zoning controls, many of the facilities sit near residential areas.

Apart from the DHS, the West Fertilizer site was subject to a hodgepodge of regulation by the EPA, OSHA, the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Texas Department of State Health Services, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the Office of the Texas State Chemist.

But the material is exempt from some mainstays of U.S. chemicals safety programs. For instance, the EPA's Risk Management Program (RMP) requires companies to submit plans describing their handling and storage of certain hazardous chemicals. Ammonium nitrate is not among the chemicals that must be reported.

In its RMP filings, West Fertilizer reported on its storage of anhydrous ammonia and said that it did not expect a fire or explosion to affect the facility, even in a worst-case scenario. And it had not installed safeguards such as blast walls around the plant.

A separate EPA program, known as Tier II, requires reporting of ammonium nitrate and other hazardous chemicals stored above certain quantities. Tier II reports are submitted to local fire departments and emergency planning and response groups to help them plan for and respond to chemical disasters. In Texas, the reports are collected by the Department of State Health Services. Over the last seven years, according to reports West Fertilizer filed, 2012 was the only time the company stored ammonium nitrate at the facility.


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