Matucana

Matucana

Matucana is a genus of cacti, containing approximately 20 species of mostly globular plants. The genus is only known from Peru.

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Matucana - garden

Accepted Scientific Name: Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana (Backeb.) Mottram
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 3: 11. 1997

Origin and Habitat: Cordillera Negra, Peru
Altitude: 3200 metres above sea level.

Description: Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana is one of the geographical form of the widespread and morphologically variable Matucana haynei. Many of its morphological and geographical variant was early classified as different independent species, but nowadays all this plant are considered part of a multiform species, where each form is linked to others by populations of plants with intermediate characteristics. Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana is clearly part of the Matucana haynei group, and distinguishes from the type for smaller stem size, more or less curved setaceous radial spines and one poorly differentiated central spine.
Habit: It is a globe-shaped to elongate cactus densely covered by spines. The purple, tubular flowers project beyond the spines and present a most attractive appearance at flowering time.
Stem: Generally single but occasionally many-stemmed, globular to shortly cylindrical, less than 7 cm in diameter, up to 10 cm high, green, densely covered and almost invisible under the numerous spines.
Ribs: Strongly rounded and tuberculate.
Areoles: Set closely together, with an abundance of wool when young, but without any when old.
Spines: Variable, fewer than in the type species, white to pale brown, grey with age.
Radial spines: Radially spreading, more or less curved, weak, and setaceous.
Central spines: Usually one barely differentiated from radials.
Flowers: Apical, dark crimson, up to 7 cm long and 2,5-3,5 cm broad, bilaterally symmetrical to nearly regular, limb scarcely oblique, with a long slender tube scales on ovary and tube few, small, ovate, naked in their axil. The segments acute, purplish crimson. Filaments bright carmine, anthers yellow. Style bright carmine, stigma-lobes greenish.
Fruit: Small, spherical to club shaped light reddish-green about 1 cm in length.

Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Matucana haynei group

  • Matucana comacephala" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/19048/Matucana_comacephala'> Matucana comacephala F.Ritter : (subs. myriacantha) has solitary globular to cylindrical stems with cream-coloured spines and large pink to sometimes orange-red blossoms. Distribution: Ancash, Cordillera blanca, Peru.
  • Matucana crinifera" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/5918/Matucana_crinifera'> Matucana crinifera F.Ritter : (subs. haynei) stem densely covered by yellowish-white, hair-like spines and showy blossoms, white at the bottom pinkir to red on top. Distribution: Machac, Ancash, Peru.
  • Matucana crinifera f. cristata" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/20618/Matucana_crinifera_f._cristata'> Matucana crinifera f. cristata hort. : (subs. haynei) Crested form.
  • Matucana haynei" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/1080/Matucana_haynei'> Matucana haynei (Otto) Britton & Rose : (subs. haynei) has stems to 30 cm high and at least 30 spines: Distribution: Matucana.
  • Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana (Backeb.) Mottram : usually less than 10 cm high with relatively few, more or less curved, setaceous spines. Distribution: Cordillera Negra.
  • Matucana haynei subs. hystrix (Rauh & Backeb.) Mottram : has cylindrical stems to 30 cm high, 4 distinct dark brown central spines, and numerous radials. Distribution: Nazca, Ica, and Lucanas, Ayacucho.
  • Matucana haynei subs. hystrix var. atrispina" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/1090/Matucana_haynei_subs._hystrix_var._atrispina'> Matucana haynei subs. hystrix var. atrispina Rauh & Backeb. : like Matucana haynei subs. hystrix but with more robust blackish spines, ash-grey and conspicuously swollen at the base. Distribution: Nazca to Lucamas and adjacent areas, southern Peru.
  • Matucana haynei subs. myriacantha (Vaupel) Mottram : has very short stems, rarely more than 8 cm high, and as many as 10 central spines and 25 radials. Distibution: above Balsas, Cajamarca.
  • Matucana herzogiana var. perplexa" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/6014/Matucana_herzogiana_var._perplexa'> Matucana herzogiana var. perplexa Backeb. : similar to Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana, but with more numerous and longer spines. The flowers are bright red and zygomorphic. Distribution: Cordillera Negra, Peru
  • Matucana multicolor" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/5929/Matucana_multicolor'> Matucana multicolor Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb. : has multicoloured spination. The central spines ranges from amber, to black-brown, to black-violet, or nearly white. Distribution: Nazca-Puquio road at about 4,100m ASL.
  • Matucana myriacantha f. roseoalba" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/15995/Matucana_myriacantha_f._roseoalba'> Matucana myriacantha f. roseoalba (hort., F.Ritter) Lodé : (subs. myriacantha) has dense cream coloured spines cover almost completely the plants body. Flowers are glossy pink and white, tubular and zigomorphyc.
  • Matucana variabilis" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/5925/Matucana_variabilis'> Matucana variabilis Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb. : (subs. haynei) It has thin variable spines (cream to amber coloured) suggesting the epithet. Distribution: Ancash, Peru.
  • Matucana villarica" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/34227/Matucana_villarica'> Matucana villarica n.n. : Brewster County, Texas, USA.
  • Matucana yanganucensis" href='/Encyclopedia/CACTI/Family/Cactaceae/5928/Matucana_yanganucensis'> Matucana yanganucensis Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb. : (subs. haynei) Same as Matucana haynei.

Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) Nathaniel Lord Britton, Joseph Nelson Rose “Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family” vol. 4 The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington 1923
3) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass" Cambridge University Press, 11/Aug/2011
4) David R Hunt Nigel P Taylor Graham Charles International Cactaceae Systematics Group. "The New Cactus Lexicon" dh books.

Cultivation and Propagation: It is a summer-growing species of relatively easy cultivation. This plant is adapted to dry soils and is quite susceptible to over-watering if kept in a non ventilated place.
Growth rate: Matucanas grow slowly in their natural habitats, but in greenhouses they grow more quickly.
Soil: Grow it in a rich, open, sandy-gritty cactus compost. It needs good drainage and a deep pot to accommodate its tap root.
Repotting: Repot in the spring when the roots become cramped. Generally, these plants should be re-potted every other year, in order to provide fresh soil. However, this doesn't necessarily mean they'll need larger containers. After repotting, do not water for a week or more.
Exposure: It is suited for sunny-brightly exposure, but can tolerate light shade. However it will do its best only with lots of sun and become stressed with inadequate light which could result in poor growth and unnatural shape. Direct sun is also beneficial in order to get a good spine colouration.
Watering: Water sparingly and keep it completely dry during winter. Mature individuals easily rot and die especially after transplanting so be extremely cautious with watering. Keep dry in winter or when night temperatures remain below 10° C. Water it less than average if in bigger pots.
Fertilization: Feed them once during the growing season with a fertilizer specifically formulated for cactus and succulents (high potash fertilizer with a dilute low nitrogen), including all micro nutrients and trace elements diluted to ½ the strength recommended on the label. They thrive in poor soils and need a limited supplies of fertilizer to avoid the plants developing excess vegetation, which is easily attacked by fungal diseases.
Special need: It is suited for airy exposures. Provide very good ventilation. Nearly all problems occur as a result of overwatering and poor ventilation, especially when weather conditions are dull and cool or very humid. They must have very dry atmosphere.
Hardiness: It likes warmth (recommended minimum winter temperature 5° C) But plants kept perfectly dry but may to survive a light frost.
Pests & diseases: These cacti may be attractive to a variety of insects, but plants in good condition should be nearly pest-free, particularly if they are grown in a mineral potting-mix, with good exposure and ventilation. Nonetheless, there are several pests to watch for:
- Red spiders: Red spiders may be effectively rubbed up by misting the plants from above.
- Mealy bugs: Mealy bugs occasionally develop aerial into the new leaves and flowers with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
- Scales, thrips and aphids: These insects are rarely a problem.
- Rot: Rot is only a minor problem if the plants are watered and “aired” correctly. If they are not, fungicides won't help all that much.
Propagation: Usually propagated from seeds (seldom produces offsets). The seeds can be sown in pots of fine, well-drained sandy soil, any time during the spring when temperatures are warm. Cover the seeds with a fine layer of grit and water from below with a fungicide to prevent damping off. For the 1-2 weeks cover the pots with a sheet of glass/clear perspex to keep the humidity levels high. Remove the glass and replace it with light shade-cloth and mist once or twice a day for the next two weeks after which most seeds should have germinated. From then on mistings can be reduced to every second and then every third day as the little plants grow. The seedlings should not be disturbed until they are well rooted after which they can be planted separately in small pots.


Matucana aureiflora

Plant does not flower in January

Plant does not flower in February

Plant does not flower in March

Plant does flower in April

Plant does flower in June

Plant does flower in July

Plant does flower in August

Plant does not flower in September

Plant does not flower in October

Plant does not flower in November

Plant does not flower in December

  • Botanical name:Matucanaaureiflora
  • Common name: Cactus
  • Family: Cactaceae
  • Plant Type: Cactus or succulent, House plant, Evergreen

Matucana aureiflora is a small, globose cactus native to Peru, where it grows in montane valleys. In cultivation it’s a fast grower and in spring and summer it produces magnificent yellow flowers that appear in flushes.

For best results, grow Matucana aureiflora in full sun or partial shade, with protection from the hottest summer sun. Plant this species in a deep pot to allow space for its tap root, in very well-drained soil. Protect from frost and reduce watering in winter.


How To Grow

Sweet peas (Lathyrus odoratus) are an annual climbing plant which can grow to heights of 1–2 meters (six feet). Try to plant in areas with support available. The leaves twine around supporting plants and structures helping the sweet pea to climb. The flowers range with a variety of colours, in the many cultivars. They are are a flowering plant in the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (legumes), native to Sicily, southern Italy and the Aegean Islands. Annual flowers that are an unmistakable sign of early summer. It is easy to Grow sweet peas.

Latin
Lathyrus odoratus and others
Family: Fabaceae

Difficulty
Easy

Season & Zone
Exposure: Full sun
Zone: 1-10

Timing
Sow indoors 6-8 weeks before the last average frost date for your area. On the coast this would mean sowing in the first half of February. Or direct sow outdoors in early spring, while the soil is still cool and light frost is still possible. Plants are strongest from an early, indoor sowing. Sweet peas can also be direct sown in the fall wherever winters are mild.

Starting
Sow seeds 1cm (½”) deep. If starting indoors, chip seeds or soak them in warm water for 24 hours. Use a seed inoculant for the best results. Maintain a soil temperature of 12-18°C (55-65°F). Seeds should germinate in 10-20 days.

Growing
For best results, prepare the sweet pea bed the previous fall. Cultivate the soil to 45cm (18″) deep, incorporating a generous amount of finished compost. Also dig in bone meal. At transplant time, dig ¼ cup complete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each plant. Space vines at 15cm (6″) and provide trellis support. Mulch around plants to keep the soil as cool as possible, and water during dry weather. Keep plants picked to prolong the blooming period.

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  • Very old heirloom variety
  • Nice bicolour flowers
  • Fragrant
  • Blooms over a long period
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Lathyrus odoratus ‘Matucana’

Plant does not flower in January

Plant does not flower in February

Plant does not flower in March

Plant does not flower in April

Plant does not flower in May

Plant does not flower in June

Plant does flower in July

Plant does flower in August

Plant does flower in September

Plant does flower in October

Plant does not flower in November

Plant does not flower in December

  • Botanical name:Lathyrusodoratus 'Matucana'
  • Common name: Sweet pea
  • Family: Papilionaceae
  • Plant Type: Annual, Evergreen

Watch the video: Matucana madisoniorum from bud to bloom, Season 2017