The sweet cherry variety "Melitopolskaya" is widespread in the southern regions of the Russian Federation, it is also grown in Moldova and Ukraine. and was registered in the state register of the North Caucasus region back in 1977.
Sweet cherry "Melitopol black" is a popular variety both among amateur gardeners and those who grow the fruits of this tasty berry on an industrial scale and supply them to different regions and countries.
There are early and mid-season species of Melitopol cherry. We will tell you about how they differ and how you can grow them yourself in the article.
Description of the variety
Sweet cherry "Melitopol black" grows out of a seedling rather quickly. The crown of the tree is usually dense, round in shape. The branches grow upward. The bark of the tree is brown, sometimes there is a gray tint. Young shoots, however, are green.
Sweet cherry has large oval leaves with double notches. The leaves grow on thick, long petioles.
There are located 2-3 glands of oval shape and large size.
Cherry "Melitopol black" is more resistant to such fruit diseases as moniliosis, fruit rot and bacterial cancer more than other varieties. Cherries will dry faster on the branches than mold.
The variety is considered frost-resistant, is able to withstand temperatures up to -25 degrees in winter and repeated spring frosts.
It can grow not only in garden plots, but also in nurseries. Produces a good sustainable harvest.
Sweet cherry Melitopolskaya belongs to self-fertile varieties, therefore it needs pollinators. Best suited for her are such varieties as "Kurortnaya", "Cosmic", "Franz Joseph", "Surprise", "Large-fruited", "Biggaro Oratovsky".
Fruiting of cherries occurs in the fourth year after planting the grafted seedling. By the age of 15, the tree gives a steady bountiful harvest, which is almost 70 kilograms per bush. Ripening of berries occurs in June-July.
Berries perfectly tolerate transportation; if stored correctly, they can withstand freshness up to a month. Most consumers like the taste.
- sweet cherryis 13%;
- cherry acidity - less than 1%, varies in the range of 0.7-0.8%.
Sweet cherry Melitopol gives large round or oval fruits, the weight of one berry is 7 grams. The berry grows on a stalk up to 5 cm long and easily breaks off from it, leaving a dry trail.
Description of the variety in the video:
Cherry fruits have a dense, shiny burgundy-black skin and dark red flesh. The round bone is small and easily separates from the pulp. The taste of berries is sweet, with sourness. If the berry is not ripe, it may taste a little bitter.
Sweet cherries are consumed fresh and used in canning.
Planting of Melitopolskaya cherry varieties. Step-by-step instructions with a photo
Cherries can be planted in two ways - with open and closed root systems. The period of permissible transplantation depends on this. If the root system is closed (that is, you have a seedling in a bucket), you can plant it in a permanent place during any part of the growing season.
If the seedling has an open root system, it is better to do planting either in early spring or in autumn. The main condition is for the tree to be at rest.
Cherries should be planted on the south side of the garden, which is sunlit and protected from drafts and winds. The distance to other plantings and buildings should be at least 4.5 meters, since the cherry crown will be spreading and wide. The proximity of melt and groundwater for cherries is unacceptable, as it causes stagnation and decay of the roots.
The most suitable soil for Melitopol cherries is sandy loam, loamy, fertile and loose. If the soil is not suitable, you should change its composition directly in the planting pit. When forming a planting pit, it is filled with humus, compost, mixing them in the ground. You can add nitroammophoska, potassium sulfate, superphosphate. With increased acidity, the soil is diluted with dolomite flour.
The planting pit is dug 0.8 m in diameter and 0.6 m in depth. A supporting peg is installed in the center of the pit, to which the cherry will subsequently be tied.
If a tree with an open root system is planted, it is placed in water in advance to revive the roots and saturate the trunk with moisture. If the roots are dry, you can leave the seedling in water for 24 hours.
The trunk is cut off at a level of 0.6 m. At least 4 living buds should remain above the inoculation. The seedling is placed in the hole and the roots are spread from top to bottom. The root collar should remain open at ground level, and the graft should be placed 5-7 cm above ground level.
After installing the seedling, it is covered with pre-prepared soil with the addition of nutrients. An irrigation trench is formed, into which 2 buckets of water are poured, then mulching is performed. For this, hay, dry grass, humus are suitable. In conclusion tie the seedling to a peg with twine or rope. You cannot use sharp metal threads, as they will harm the tree.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
After planting, cherry seedlings need watering and care. It consists of fertilizing, spraying, preventive procedures against diseases and pests, pruning, weeding and mulching.
In spring, cherry trees are fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers; closer to summer, fertilizers containing potassium are applied. In autumn, cherries are fed with superphosphate.
Many gardeners put nets on young trees to help keep the crop free from birds. Every year, you should cut off the branches that grow inward and thicken the crown, and broken and damaged branches are also removed.
How to properly prune Melitopol cherries?
A cherry tree up to 7 meters high has a peculiarity and eventually transfers fruiting to the upper young branches. Therefore, to prevent such a problem, gardeners are advised to use the so-called "Spanish pruning".
It allows you to stop the growth of cherries at a level of about 3 meters and save the harvest. Since the Melitopol sweet cherry has an angle of inclination of the branch from the trunk of about 60 degrees, it will not be difficult to cut the sweet cherry in the Spanish way.
In the first year in spring, the tree is cut by 30 cm, lateral branches will grow over the summer. Of these, you need to choose 4, which are located in the upper part of the crown and began to grow in different directions. These will be the main skeletal shoots. All other branches are removed before they have formed a bark.
We form the crown:
Skeletal shoots should be allowed to grow up to 50 cm, after which the same pruning should be done. All branches should be on the same line. After such a "haircut", active growth of tops begins, which should be removed regularly. Tops are lateral shoots that contribute to the thickening of the crown and take away strength from the tree.
During the season, shoots of the second order should appear on the skeletal branches, they are left until the second year.
In the second season of life, a crown bowl is formed. With an early vein, the lower shoots of the second row are bent horizontally and fixed. This will help the skeletal branches turn and descend.
When the tree begins to bloom, the branches of the second order are shortened to 0.3 m, carrying out the same even, simultaneous pruning. By the summer, branches of the third row are formed. When they grow up to 50 cm in length, the procedure for lowering these branches should be repeated. They, in fact, will pull the branches of the second row and skeletal ones, which will complete the formation of the “Spanish bush”.
Subsequently, it is necessary to shorten shoots longer than 2.5 m, carry out internal pruning and remove shoots growing straight up.
When the main branches are bare, they need to be gradually removed, replaced with new ones. Trimming is carried out to a length of 30 cm from the trunk. On this branch, new shoots are formed, of which the strongest will need to be left. It is recommended to cut off no more than one skeletal branch per year, otherwise the tree will die.
Watering the planted cherry tree should be done 2-3 times a week. The soil under the bush should be moist. Usually, up to 3 buckets of water are taken for a single watering, depending on the size of the tree and the dryness of the trunk circle.
After a year, they begin to apply fertilizers:
- during flowering and bud formation;
- during the formation of the ovary;
- after harvest or in the fall before the onset of frost.
Watering in spring and autumn is recommended to be combined with fertilization. In the spring, urea is added to the water, in the fall, superphosphate or potassium salt.
We water the cherries correctly:
Before freezing, the trunk circle is covered with compost to protect the root system. Covering material can be used to keep the cherries free from rodents in winter.
Diseases and pests. The main types and solutions to the problem
Cherry variety "Melitopol black" is resistant to typical diseases of fruit trees - moniliosis, gray rot and cancer. The development of immunity is facilitated by the climate in which this cherry variety grows. Dry and warm weather is opposed to high humidity, which is usually at the root of disease. In the reviews left by gardeners about the cultivation of cherries, there are no points and questions about diseases.
Inconvenience to gardeners is more caused by birds that destroy berries directly on the branches. They fight feathered pests by covering the tree with nets or hanging repellents, or by planting mulberries near cherries. Birds will give preference to mulberries while cherries are ripe.
Popular varieties and types of Melitopol cherries, including Melitopol early, Melitopol late. Description of the variety
Allocate Melitopol early, late cherry. Above, at the beginning of the article, we described the late Melitopol variety.
Early Melitopol cherry was bred after crossing the varieties "Franz Joseph" and "Early Mark". Early cherries are flat and round, the flesh is equipped with white blotches. The berries taste sweet and sour and appear in the third year of the tree's life. The berries ripen in late May or early June.
The varieties "Valery Chkalov", "Rubinovaya early", "Bigaro Burlat" serve as pollinators for early Melitopol cherries.
Otherwise, the appearance of the tree and the cultivation features do not differ from those described above.
Melitopol late, as already mentioned, has round or oval fruits of dark red or black color, red flesh and sweet taste with sourness. Fruiting of late cherries occurs in June-July.
How to pickle cherries:
Reviews about the variety of sweet cherry "Melitopol black"
Basically, the reviews contain a description of the unpretentiousness of growing and the taste of cherry berries.
Cherry varieties "Melitopol Black" - a wonderful fruit tree, well suited for cultivation in the southern regions. Berries are used fresh, frozen, dried, desserts and preparations for the winter are boiled, candied fruits are made. Cherries are used to make wine and brandy.
The tree grows quickly and grows very tall, which makes harvesting difficult over time. However, correct and timely pruning allows you to cope with this problem. The rest caring for a fruit tree does not differ in features and difficulties.
The breeder of the experimental station in the Ukrainian Artemovsk, L. I. Taranenko, by crossing the varieties Donetsk Beauty and Donetsk Ember, bred the large-fruited Vasilisa cherry in the early 2000s. After field trials, the variety became interested in the USA and Europe.
The Vasilisa variety comes from plants that bear fruit in the southern lands. Many gardeners recommend not planting the Vasilisa variety above the latitude of Volgograd, so as not to be disappointed in the cherry as a form after damage to fruit buds in winter or after spring return frosts.
- A tree with an average growth rate rises up to 4 m, but with proper crown formation it will be lower, more convenient for harvesting fruits.
- The natural type of crown of Vasilisa is spherical.
- Abundant branching; shoots are powerful, strong, with light brown bark, slightly curved.
- The branches are leafy, but still large Vasilisa berries protrude from under the leaves.
- The leaf blade is ovoid, large, shiny, dark green in color.
- Flowers are white, often located directly on annual shoots.
- The round fruits of the Vasilisa variety are very large, fleshy, weighing 11–12 g, often 14 g. The skin is dense, glossy, deep red. The juicy fragrant pulp has the same shade, which crunches slightly when eaten. The berries are pleasant, sweet and sour, with a winey aftertaste and a rather large bone, which is easily separated.
- Cherry Vasilisa was rated by the tasters at 4.5 points. Canned berries received the highest score - 4.8-5.
- The processed fruit juice remains bright red, does not darken. And the berries acquire a special sweetness and aroma.
The best cherry pollinator varieties (with a table)
When growing this crop, keep in mind that even the best varieties of cherries grafted onto Magolebskaya (Antipka) cherries have some incompatibility and can, when entering fruiting, for this very reason, completely dry out along with the fruits by the middle of the growing season. This is a legalized agronomic marriage, for there are no more perfect rootstocks for cherries. Therefore, you should not panic, but prepare a replacement for the dead tree.
Table "Cherry pollinating varieties":
June early, Melitopol black
Daibera black, Denisena yellow (from old varieties), Space
Space, Dybera black, Melitopol black, French black, Large-fruited
June early, Space, Household, Zhabule, Skorospelka
June early, Melitopol black, Bigarro Oratovsky
Household, Dayber black, Valery Chkalov
Bigarro Oratovsky, Large-fruited, Black Dybera
Bigarro Oratovsky, Dayber black, Valery Chkalov
Space, Bigarro Oratovsky, Dybera black, Large-fruited, French black
June early, Donchanka, Valery Chkalov, Large-fruited
Household, Valery Chkalov, Skorospelka, Francis
The following describes which varieties of cherries are best planted in the Moscow region and other regions of central Russia.
Cherry Care French Black
Regular care ensures the fruiting and growth of cherries. In spring, the tree is fed with mullein infusion, which is poured under the root. During the flowering and fruiting period, nitrogen fertilizers are abandoned. 35 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added to a bucket of water, the resulting solution is poured into the trunk circle.
Due to its high drought resistance, French cherry does not need constant watering. Moisture is brought in only during flowering, if there is little rainfall during this period. After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched with humus.
In autumn or spring, when the sap flow of trees slows down, they are pruned sweet cherries. The crown is formed in the form of 3-4 tiers, consisting of 3 strong shoots. Dry, broken and diseased shoots are cut out.
A brief listing of the formative pruning of sweet cherry trees
We remove the lateral branches that are close in diameter to the central conductor, or more than half the diameter of the central conductor, shade and oppress it.
We remove the branches on the central conductor not on the “ring”, but leaving a knot, 20 cm long. To avoid severe gum leakage, and the possible development of conductor diseases. The lower and thicker the branch to be removed, the longer the protective knot left (up to 40 cm).
We shorten the central conductor at a height of 80-100 cm from the last upper branch (by 40-50% of the annual growth). It is advisable to break it with your hands.
On whorls, we pull out the verticals, and cut them off for transfer to the branch outside the crown.
The branches extending from the central conductor at sharp angles are removed, leaving a knot of 20 cm, from which branches will grow at right angles in the spring. The most valuable branches are thin, horizontal ones.
On the conductor, the upper branches, which are short, at an acute angle, can be pulled out (1-2 pcs.), Since with this technique we remove part of the conducting vessels and weaken the strong growth of the central conductor for a while. A lacerated wound is sterile and heals faster than a cut wound, without gum removal.
If the branch extending from the leader is unbranched and very long (more than 1 m one-year growth), but the angle and thickness are good, then we break the branch tip in the middle of the one-year growth or by 1/3 and leave it in this state. This technique slows down the growth of the branch and promotes the laying of bouquet branches on it.
We tie the lateral branches extending at sharp angles from the leader with twine to the trunk, you can use weights at the ends of the branches. The slope of the branch should be arched (negative angle of departure), as this speeds up the setting of bouquet branches and stops the growth of the branch.
Along the central conductor, up to a height of 1.8-2 m, we make a kerb over the kidneys. Kerbovka is done with a garden saw above the bud at a height of 1.5-2 cm. This awakens the bud, and a weak fruit twig can grow from it. We do kerbovka on 50-60% of the kidneys along the leader.
Early cherry - the best varieties according to gardeners' reviews
Adding an article to a new collection
Harvesting an early harvest is not only a matter of pride, but also a competition between gardeners. But so that the orchard does not bring disappointment in this rivalry, crops of early varieties should be planted. Which cherry is recognized as the best in this sense?
Sweet cherry is a very useful berry. Firstly, it is a delicious dessert, secondly, it is a dietary product, and thirdly, cherries are rich in vitamin C, carotene, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. How can you not plant such a "treasure" in your garden? After all, the sooner we pick ripe berries, the faster we will overcome the spring vitamin deficiency. Since the earliest varieties of cherries begin to bear fruit already in May-June.
Early cherries are best eaten fresh. But you can also squeeze juice out of it, cook jam or compote. True, not all varieties of berries are good for transportation. Many "early" trees are quite frost-hardy and tolerate changes in weather. Their main feature is that for good fruiting, trees of pollinating varieties need to be planted next to them.