Plant horseradish (lat.Armoracia rusticana), or horseradish, or horseradish country - a species of herbaceous perennials of the Horseradish genus of the Cruciferous family, or Cabbage. In nature, horseradish grows throughout Europe, in the Caucasus, in Siberia, choosing damp places along the banks of rivers and reservoirs, and in culture it is grown all over the world, even in Greenland. The tradition of eating horseradish vegetables appeared in ancient times in Rome and Greece, but the first written sources that mention the plant date back to the 9th century AD. - it was from this time that horseradish began to be cultivated in Russia. They used it to season meat and fish dishes, add it to homemade pickles, and grate it into kvass.
And in Western Europe, in particular in Germany, horseradish as a culture returned in the 16th century - the Germans began to use it as a seasoning for dishes, add it to schnapps and beer. Then the French, Scandinavians, and after them the British, who called it horse radish, showed interest in horseradish. Moreover, by that time, the plant was not only a seasoning for food and drink, but was also used as an effective means of traditional medicine.
Planting and caring for horseradish
- Landing: late March or early April.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: fertile loamy, sandy loam and chernozem soils.
- Watering: regularly, spending on 1 m² of beds from 10 to 20 liters of water. In the season with normal rainfall, horseradish can not be watered.
- Top dressing: 1st - after the appearance of the first leaves with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer, 2nd - organic, with mullein solution, 2-3 weeks after the first.
- Reproduction: parts of the rhizome, although it can be propagated by seeds.
- Pests: cruciferous fleas, rapeseed bugs and flower beetles, cabbage bugs and moths.
- Diseases: white rot, leucorrhoea, verticillosis and viral mosaic.
Read more about growing horseradish below.
Horseradish vegetable - description
The horseradish root crop is thick and fleshy, the stem is straight, but branched, reaching a height of 50 to 150 cm. Basal leaves, very large, oblong-oval, crenate, heart-shaped at the base. The lower leaves are pinnately separate, and the upper ones are linear, entire. The flowers of the plant are white, with petals up to 6 mm long. The fruits are swollen, oblong-oval pods 5-6 mm long with a mesh-veined pattern on the valves. Inside the pods are nests with four seeds.
Horseradish is a surprisingly unpretentious plant, and if you once plant it on your site, it will be forever - this perennial winter-hardy culture behaves aggressively, like a real weed.
All parts of the plant contain an essential oil with a pungent taste and aroma. Horseradish root juice contains ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, carotene, starch, carbohydrates, fatty oil, resinous substances and lysozyme protein, which has antimicrobial action. Horseradish root contains mineral salts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus, copper and iron. The healing properties of horseradish have long been known to medicine: it improves the functioning of the intestines, has antiscorbutic, choleretic and expectorant properties, heals colds, liver, gastrointestinal and bladder diseases, rheumatism and gout.
In this article, we will tell you how horseradish growing outdoors is carried out:
- when and how to plant horseradish;
- how to water horseradish;
- how to fertilize horseradish;
- what horseradish is sick with;
- how to treat horseradish from diseases and pests;
- when to dig the horseradish;
- how winter horseradish is planted;
- how to store horseradish until the next harvest.
Planting horseradish in open ground
When to plant horseradish in open ground
Horseradish can be planted in April and even at the end of warm March - this winter-hardy plant is not afraid of either cold snaps or frosts. Set aside a small sunny area for horseradish near the fence.
Horseradish propagates vegetatively - by cuttings, that is, by parts of a root crop. You can, of course, try the generative method of reproduction, since horseradish seeds are not in short supply, but growing horseradish from seeds has not gained popularity among amateur gardeners due to the laboriousness of the process.
The soil for horseradish needs fertile. The culture grows best in loam, black soil and in sandy loam soil, but if you adjust clay soils in accordance with the tastes of the plant, you can also grow a decent harvest on them. To do this, in the fall, manure (10-12 kg per m²), peat and sand are introduced into the clay for digging, and in the spring - mineral fertilizers at the rate of 30 g of potassium salt, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate per 1 m². If you are going to grow horseradish on his favorite soils, then fertilizers in the form of organic matter must be applied under the previous crop - cereals or legumes.
How to plant horseradish in open ground
Horseradish cuttings are harvested in the fall during harvesting and stored in a basement or cellar in dry sand or sawdust. You can prepare cuttings in the spring, but you need to have time to do this before the leaves appear.
One and a half to two weeks before planting, the roots are removed from the cellar and kept in a warm place, covered with a damp cloth, waiting for the buds to sprout. Before planting, lateral processes up to 25 cm long and up to 12 mm in diameter are cut off from the main root, long cuttings are cut into pieces, making the upper cut horizontal and the lower one oblique, after which they are planted on a garden bed, placing 4-6 cuttings on one square meter at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other with a row spacing of 65-70 cm.
If you need a good harvest of even root crops, peel the middle part of the cutting with a coarse cloth from the buds before planting, keeping them only at the top for the formation of leaves and at the bottom for regrowth of roots. If you are planting horseradish in order to get planting material, then do not remove the germinated buds - the root crop will grow branchy and give many cuttings.
Planting horseradish in open ground is carried out at an angle: the upper part should be deepened only by 5 cm, and the lower one by 10. Small pieces of roots can also be used to grow horseradish - about 8 in length and no more than 2.5 cm thick, but they are located horizontally in the ground, keeping all the buds.
Planting horseradish before winter
Planting horseradish in the fall is carried out in the same manner as in the spring. It is better to plant horseradish in places where potatoes and tomatoes grew, before planting which organic fertilizers were introduced into the soil. The site is freed from plant residues and weeds, dug up, after which prepared horseradish cuttings are planted. The best time for autumn planting is mid-October.
How to grow horseradish
As soon as horseradish sprouts appear, they should be mercilessly thinned out, leaving only the strongest shoots. In July, you need to remove the lateral branches on the roots, for which the plants are excavated and the upper 25 cm of the root are freed from the lateral roots. After processing, the rhizome is again covered with earth, tamped and watered so that there are no voids in the soil around the roots.
The rest of horseradish care consists in watering, loosening the soil, weeding the site, protecting against diseases and pests.
Horseradish should be watered regularly throughout the growing season. Water consumption is about 10-20 liters of water per 1 m² of the garden. Be especially careful in this regard during dry seasons. If the summer will be with precipitation, then it will be possible not to water the horseradish, since waterlogging leads to decay of the roots and, consequently, to loss of yield.
The first feeding of horseradish with a complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 5 g of ammonium nitrate, 8 g of superphosphate and 5 g of potassium salt per m² is carried out after the appearance of the first leaves. If it seems to you that horseradish is not developing quickly enough, water it 2-3 weeks after the first feeding with mullein solution (1:10).
Horseradish pests and diseases
Horseradish is much more resistant to diseases than other cabbage crops. Under unfavorable conditions and poor care, it can be affected by white rot, linen, verticillium and mosaic. Of the pests for horseradish, cruciferous fleas, rapeseed bugs and flower beetles, cabbage bugs and moths are dangerous.
Viral diseases are incurable, therefore, mosaic-affected plants must be removed and disposed of, as well as specimens with verticillary wilt. As for leucorrhoea and white rot, these are fungal diseases, the causative agents of which can be destroyed at an early stage of the development of the disease by treatment with copper-containing preparations - Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate, Oxyhom, Tiovit Jet and the like.
In the fight against insect pests, agricultural techniques are used (observance of crop rotation, weed control, destruction of plant residues and deep digging of the site after harvesting), as well as treatment of plants with insecticides - Aktellik, Foxim in the case of flea beetles and bedbugs, Tsimbush, Etaphos or Zolon in the case of the flower beetle and moth. The last processing of horseradish with chemicals is carried out no later than three weeks before harvesting.
However, let us remind you once again that diseases and pests usually affect weak and neglected plants, and with good care and adherence to agricultural technology, your horseradish is not afraid of diseases or pests.
Horseradish cleaning and storage
Horseradish leaves begin to be cut in August - they are used as a spice when pickling cucumbers, tomatoes and other vegetables. Try not to cut off all the leaves from one plant, as their absence will prevent the root from developing. Leaves are cut at a height of 10-15 cm from the surface of the site so as not to damage the young leaves and the apical bud.
Mass harvesting of root crops begins in the third decade of October or early November, before the onset of frost, when the horseradish leaves turn yellow and begin to dry out. If you planted large cuttings, then the horseradish harvest is done in the year of planting, if the cuttings were small, then good root crops will ripen only the next year.
Before harvesting, the leaves of horseradish are cut off, the root is digged in with a shovel and removed. Try not to leave even the smallest roots in the soil, otherwise they will turn into a malicious weed next year. The dug roots must be immediately transferred to a cool room, cleaned of the ground and side branches, lubricated with iodine, dried in a warm place with good ventilation for a day. Then a layer of soil is poured into wooden boxes, on which horseradish is laid in rows so that the roots do not touch. Each row of root crops is sprinkled with a layer of clean sand. They store boxes of horseradish in the basement or cellar.
If you do not have a suitable room, keep the horseradish in the refrigerator, but you can put roots there no longer than 30 cm, each of which must be wrapped in plastic wrap, making several small holes in it for ventilation. Horseradish can be stored in a vegetable drawer of the refrigerator for about three weeks, and in the freezer for up to six months, but for this it needs to be cleaned, cut into cubes, blotted out moisture and folded into a plastic bag.
Horseradish is also stored in a dried form. It is cut into slices, laid out in one layer on a baking sheet and placed in an oven preheated to 60 ºC for an hour and a half. When the horseradish dries and hardens, it is ground in a coffee grinder, ground with a grater or pounded in a mortar, poured into a glass or porcelain container and covered with a lid. If necessary, the powder is soaked in water and used as directed. Dried horseradish is stored for up to 2 years.
You can also store horseradish in a marinade. To do this, well-washed and peeled roots in an amount of 1 kg are ground in a meat grinder or on a grater, tightly placed in a pre-sterilized glass jar and poured with marinade: add one tablespoon of sugar and salt to 250 ml of boiling water, and then, removing from heat, pour 125 ml of six percent apple cider vinegar into boiling water. Vinegar can be substituted with one tablespoon of citric acid. After you have poured the horseradish with boiling marinade, the jar is rolled up with a sterile metal lid. In this form, horseradish can be stored for several years.
Types and varieties of horseradish
The best varieties of horseradish are:
- Atlas (or Wild) - mid-season moisture, drought and frost-resistant variety with a rhizome 20 to 50 cm long, 4-5 cm in diameter and weighing 190 to 380 g, with a dense, not very juicy milky-white pulp;
- Valkovsky - a late-ripening variety, resistant to cruciferous midges and diseases, with a yellowish cylindrical root 50-60 cm long, 2-3 cm in diameter and an average weight of about 150 g;
- Suzdal - a variety with even roots up to 30 cm long and about 3 cm in diameter, without lateral branches, with juicy and "evil" white pulp;
- Tolpukhovsky - a late-ripening variety with roots 25-35 cm long and weighing from 65 to 250 g.
In addition to those described, such varieties of horseradish for open ground are known as Riga, Jelgavsky, Latvian, Rostovsky, Volkovsky, Marune, Boris Yeltsin and others.
The winter-hardy, unpretentious and nutritious katran plant, which is not a horseradish variety, but is related to it, is also grown in culture. Katran also has medicinal properties, it is as rich in vitamins and minerals as horseradish, however, unfortunately, it is not so well known. But katran does not have that drawback, because of which gardeners sometimes do not want to grow horseradish on their plot - it, with equal positive qualities with horseradish, does not clog the garden with its root shoots. The leaves of the katran are large, light green in color with a blue tint. They are used boiled as a side dish for meat and fish dishes.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Plants on X Root crops
Planting plants in open ground. Fertilizers and horseradish feeding
Before planting horseradish, the soil is flavored with compost (manure). We find a semi-shaded place, it's great if legumes or grain plants were planted there before. Horseradish loves moist acidic soils.
Important! Horseradish is a rather tenacious and tenacious culture, it grows quickly under suitable conditions. Therefore, if you do not limit his space, he may begin to clog the area. And the small roots left after "poor-quality" weeding germinate easily.
The place of planting in open ground has been chosen, it is necessary to prepare the planting material: in principle, you can use both the main root and the shoots (although it is better to take the shoots, one main root can have 4-6 roots). It is necessary to dig up the spine and cut it off, it is desirable that the diameter of the material is about 1-1.5 cm, and the length is up to 20 cm.
Planting outdoors is done in spring or autumn. Horseradish is not afraid of the cold, so both early spring and late autumn are suitable. If the roots are to get into the open ground in the spring, then they must be properly preserved in the winter so that they remain fresh, not sluggish. Keep the material in a cellar or basement, covered with earth.
Important! It should be noted where the spine has the upper part, where the lower one, so as not to be confused when landing.
When going to plant horseradish, we clean the root cuttings from small processes, without affecting the areas above and below the root, where roots and leaves are then formed. It is better to bury it obliquely, the distance between the roots is from 30 cm, sprinkle with earth on top by about 4-5 cm.
An important stage in growing a crop is feeding. Fertilizers are applied even on rich soils, only the dose varies. In autumn, before digging, organic matter is introduced (up to 10 kg / m2) or in spring (up to 8 kg / m2).At the same time, it is fertilized with superphosphate and potassium chloride. Such a mixture of fertilizers improves the structure of the soil, microorganisms in the soil work more actively, which increases acidity and adds nutrients. If the soil is too acidic, liming is carried out in autumn (up to 0.8 kg / m2). In the spring, mineral fertilizers are used with the addition of potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus.
Control the plant, it can spread strongly over the site
Nemophila in landscape design
American forget-me-not goes well with low-growing annuals. For decorating large and small areas, nemophiles are used: Spotted and Menzisa. Plants provide a spectacular backdrop for other species.
A carpet of bright blue, deep purple, white flowers looks truly magical, especially if the species grows over a large area. How delicate a plant like nemophila looks! Photos convey only part of the beauty that visitors see in parks and squares where American forget-me-not is planted.
Nemophila is planted in various zones, decorated with:
- flower beds
- areas along water bodies
- alpine slides.
Combine American forget-me-not with other plants to create a backdrop to highlight the beauty of tall flowers. Curly shoots of nemophila and delicate flowers look great in decorative containers or tall garden vases.
Another type with which it is easy to create a luxurious "carpet" of buds is Crocuses. Plants bloom in spring and autumn, creating a wonderful mood for everyone who sees the fantastic swaying "waves".
More useful information about growing Nemophila on the site can be found after watching the following video: