Asparagus is a very healthy and tasty early ripening plant. Already in mid-April, you can feast on its first fruits. Since the crop is usually small and the shelf life is short, the crop is considered relatively expensive. Asparagus grows in almost all European countries, since it has not only beneficial nutritional properties, but also is a remedy for many diseases. If desired, it can be grown on the site on its own, taking into account all the recommendations for care and maintenance.
Description of asparagus
Asparagus is available in nearly a hundred different species and hybrid varieties, including herbaceous plants, shrubs and dwarf shrubs. Only the tender upper part of the plant is used for food and is considered a special delicacy. The surface of the shoot is covered with tightly pressed leaves, similar to small scales, which gather at the base into one bundle. Their height can reach 50 centimeters.
When choosing a variety of asparagus for growing in a summer cottage, it is recommended to pay attention to frost resistance, yield and resistance to pests and diseases. For example, the male species of this crop have thicker stems, produce large yields, but do not produce seeds. In the female varieties, the stems are softer and thinner, and the yields are much more plentiful.
Growing asparagus shoots requires loose and fertile soil, possibly with a high percentage of sand. The plant develops well when spring warmth (more than 10 degrees), at summer temperatures - up to 30 degrees Celsius, but small night frosts in spring can destroy the culture. The plant gives the first useful and nutritious shoots in late June - early July.
Asparagus is a versatile plant, it can be used not only for nutrition, but also for decorative purposes. Thin green twigs with berries - orange - red beads decorate flower arrangements and festive bouquets. And young asparagus shoots, which are just sprouting from the ground, the most valuable in composition and taste, can be baked on the grill or in the oven, steamed and eaten raw.
The appearance of young shoots differs in color depending on the cultivar. Fruits, which contain a large amount of fiber, vitamins and minerals, are purple, green and white.
Conditions for planting and growing asparagus
Those who have been growing asparagus for more than one year already easily harvest high yields, but for inexperienced gardeners, the process of caring for a plant may seem difficult. In fact, you just need to learn all the intricacies of the growing process and the basic rules of care, and even a beginner will succeed.
It is very important to choose and properly prepare a land plot for culture. The size of the plot should be large, carefully dug up and fertilized for asparagus. For each square meter of soil during autumn planting, a top dressing is applied, consisting of superphosphate (50 grams), potassium sulfate (30 grams) and ammonium sulfate (15 grams). When planting in spring, only humus is introduced into the soil in the amount of 10 kilograms per square meter. It is recommended to use with caution any other top dressing that can cause burns to the root of the plants.
For spring planting of asparagus roots, shallow trenches are used, which will be convenient for watering. And planting in autumn is distinguished by high mounds near each seedling, which will further protect the plants and their root system from the winter cold.
The active development of young plants and the first harvest will begin only next year. It is recommended to leave the first shoots uncut. Caring for the plant in the first and subsequent years consists in the timely loosening of the soil, weeding the beds from weeds, irrigation in the correct amounts of water and the introduction of fertilizers necessary for each period of development.
Asparagus care rules
In order for the root part to develop fully, and future fruits to be of high quality, it is necessary to properly water the plant throughout the entire growing period. The volume of irrigation water is moderate, and the irrigation is regular. An excess or lack of moisture in the soil should not be allowed.
Loosening and weeding of the soil
It is necessary to loosen the asparagus beds after each watering, after the irrigation water is completely absorbed. Weeds are weeded as soon as they appear on the site, but must be timely.
The first feeding of asparagus is recommended only three weeks after planting with liquid mullein infusion. To prepare it, you need one part mullein and five parts water. After another three weeks - the second feeding, consisting of the infusion of chicken droppings. Its composition: one part of droppings and ten parts of water. The third and last top dressing is in the autumn in the form of complex fertilizers.
Breeding methods for asparagus
The seed propagation method is considered ineffective due to the very low germination of seeds, therefore it is used in rare cases. With a great desire, perseverance and strict adherence to all instructions and recommendations, you can still get a rich harvest in this way.
Before planting, asparagus seeds must be kept in a disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate for several hours, after which they should be planted in moistened small sawdust. These conditions are ideal for young seedlings and their fragile emerging roots. 15-20 days after the emergence of sprouts, the plants can be transplanted into peat pots to a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters. The composition of the soil mixture in containers: manure, peat and sand (one part each) and earth (two parts). Seedlings are planted on open beds in the middle of summer.
How to grow asparagus. Garden World site
Gourmet Vegetable: Asparagus
Asparagus or Asparagus Asparagus or Asparagus Is a perennial plant that grows mainly in dry climates. In total, there are about 100 species of asparagus. Only about 20 species of this plant are edible.
Asparagus is a delicacy long appreciated by Europeans. White and green asparagus has a delicate taste and contains a lot of nutrients. In our latitudes, asparagus cannot boast of popularity - this vegetable is expensive, so dishes from it are rarely on the menu. However, why not grow this exotic in your garden?
If you decide to grow asparagus, then you should be prepared for the fact that you will get the harvest only in the third year. It is better to grow asparagus in an open, well-lit area. Acidic soils must be limed, and perennial rhizome weeds must be removed.
In late autumn, prepare the soil: dig up and add well-rotted manure or compost at the rate of 6-8 kg per 1 square meter, you can apply full mineral fertilizer or nitroammofosk - 80-100 g per 1 square meter. Asparagus roots are close to the surface, so the main reserves of nutrients should be in the upper soil layer at a depth of no more than 30 cm. In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, dig up the soil again. Asparagus beds should be at least one meter wide and 30 cm high.
A garden with asparagus Soak the seeds in warm water for three days, while changing the water twice a day, then place the seeds in wet sand and keep in it for 7-8 days at a temperature of about 25 C until they bite. In areas with snowy winters, winter sowing is more effective, and in this case, seeds are sown in dry autumn directly into the ground.
Sow seeds in open ground for growing seedlings in late May - early June, when the soil warms up well. The seeding depth is 3 cm, the sowing rate is 10-15 g per 1 square meter. Sprinkle the crops with earth and roll a little, then mulch with humus. After the emergence of seedlings, thin out the plants, leaving 15-20 cm between them.
Over the summer, carry out several dressings. By early August, good seedlings should have 2-4 stems. Before the very frosts, all shoots are cut off, and the roots are covered with a layer of humus (5-8 cm) or leafy soil to protect them from freezing.
The next year, in the month of April, the asparagus should be transplanted to a permanent place. High-quality seedlings should have an intact root system - elastic roots, without spots and dried out areas.
Asparagus For planting, dig a trench 35-40 cm deep and 35 cm wide. For each square meter, add 6-8 kg of humus and 100 g of complete mineral fertilizer and mix it with the ground. Loosen the bottom of the trench well with a pitchfork. Pour a 10 cm thick ridge of humus or compost on the bottom of the trench.On the ridge, place the asparagus rhizomes at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other and gently spread the roots so that the rhizome buds are 10-15 cm below the surface (for green asparagus - 8 -10 cm). Water the plants abundantly and cover them with a 5-8 cm layer of earth. Place a stake in the center, to which you will tie the plant up in the future.
In the next two years, caring for asparagus is reduced to timely weeding, feeding and watering. As the asparagus grows, due to the constant application of organic fertilizers, the trench is gradually filled up and a roller is formed in which delicate bleached shoots will form.
A feature of vegetable asparagus is its great need for organic fertilizers. Apply them as periodic dressings and during the annual hilling of plants. Do not cut the "sprigs for bouquet" from asparagus vegetable plantations, this will weaken the plants and reduce the next year's yield.
In autumn, when the leaves turn yellow, cut the plants at the base and carry out the next weeding of the area. Burn the cut stems to prevent the spread of diseases and pests. After that, cover the asparagus with a layer of mulch up to 10 cm thick.
Asparagus Next spring, feed the plants with a full mineral fertilizer - 60-100 g per 1 square meter. In the summer, spend 2-3 feeding with infusion of mullein or bird droppings with the addition of ash. Loosen the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm, water as needed. In the fall, cut the leaves again and sprinkle the plants with a layer of humus. Thoroughly clean the ridge of plant residues.
In the third year after planting asparagus, you can finally enjoy this incomparable vegetable. There are two types of asparagus - green and bleached. Green asparagus grows in the light. It is rougher than bleached, but contains more vitamins and nutrients.
Green asparagus is very simple. In early spring, it must be fed and wait for the shoots to reach a length of 15-20 cm. Longer shoots have a fibrous base, the top cracks, which reduces their presentation. The collection usually begins in mid-May, every day (in a cold spring - after two to three days), for a month and a half.
To obtain bleached shoots, the plants are spud. Before that, fertilizing is carried out with ammonium nitrate (20-25 g per 1 square meter). The height of the comb should be 20-25 cm. The surface and sidewalls must be leveled with a board in order to determine the places for harvesting ready-made shoots along the cracks on a flat surface.
Bleached Asparagus Sometimes, to obtain bleached shoots, plants are covered in spring with black plastic wrap or dark covering material. You can place buckets or boxes without a bottom over the asparagus and cover them with sand or sawdust. As necessary, the plants are uncooked and the shoots are cut off with a very sharp knife at the base, trying not to damage the neighboring shoots. After that, the soil is laid back in place. They eat young shoots that have reached a length of 18-20 cm, have not yet emerged or have just emerged to the surface of the soil, with a still unblown head.
In the third year of life, all growing shoots are cut off from the plant within six weeks from the time the first shoot appears on the surface. In the fourth and subsequent years, the harvest period is extended to eight weeks. Since many small shoots are formed at different stages of development, it is important to carefully cut them off in time, but so that the plant retains the ability to grow for a number of years.
Asparagus yields are increased until the sixth year, then set at the same level. To extend the growing period in one place, the asparagus is properly looked after during the entire growing season, fed and watered in a timely manner, and in the fall, after pruning, a mound is raked to allow air to reach the roots.
From June, leafy shoots begin to grow, which should not be hindered. The nutrients formed in the above-ground green parts of the plant are stored in reserve in the underground organs. It was at this time that the foundation for next year's harvest was laid.
Asparagus leaf beetle Pests and diseases of asparagus. The asparagus leaf beetle appears on plants in mid-summer. Small yellow and black bugs, their black larvae destroy foliage. For pest control, special insecticides are used - "Aktellik", "Fitoverm", "Fufanon", etc.
Red rot of asparagus roots is caused by a fungus. In diseased plants, the root collar and roots die off. The death of the roots leads to the death of the aerial part of the plant. As the disease spreads, a bald patch forms on the site. If the infection is not very strong, then the place of accumulation of the infection must be treated with "Fundazol" and isolated with a thick plastic wrap. In case of severe infection, the plants are destroyed and a new plantation is established.
Asparagus green and bleached Some tips for cooking asparagus. It is cleaned by scraping off the upper fibers, starting from the head and up to that part of the stem that stops breaking and does not have a slight transparency. Freshly cut asparagus is most delicious; try not to break the head during processing - this is the most delicious part of the plant. Asparagus is peeled, immediately immerse it in cold water. Underground shoots cut in time (up to 20 cm long) should not be coarse and fibrous. They are eaten in boiled and canned form, they can be frozen for future use.
To avoid breaking the peeled asparagus, it is recommended to tie it in bunches. It is boiled for 10-20 minutes over high heat in salted water. The bunches should be standing, not lying in the pan. It is desirable that the water reaches the middle of the shoots. Cooked asparagus is kept in a decoction! Asparagus is especially good with various sauces.
Choosing a place and soil for planting asparagus
Asparagus grows in one place up to 20 years, its yield increases for the first 6–7 years, then it remains stable, and after 10 years it decreases. This means that the area for asparagus must be chosen as for a tree or shrub sapling, that is, for a long time. The place should be open to the sun and poorly visited. A well-lit corner of the garden is ideal. Perennial spicy and medicinal herbs can also grow here. The best predecessors of asparagus are grains and crops that require deep digging of the earth (potatoes).
The area for planting asparagus should be open and sunny.
The soil under the asparagus should be fertile and well-permeable to the roots. Six bushes are enough for one family, which will occupy about 2 m². Fertilize the garden bed with humus, compost or fresh manure, scattering 1-2 buckets for each square meter before digging. Heavy clay soil should be repaired by adding coarse sand to a consistency until the wet earth no longer clumps together.
Asparagus has been growing in one place for many years, so the land needs to be well filled with organic matter - manure or humus.
High beds - from 10 cm and above - save from the close occurrence of groundwater (at a depth of less than 1.5–2 m²). In addition, asparagus does not like acidic soils; before planting, they are deoxidized with lime, bone or dolomite flour. Application rates depend on the pH of the land on the site. In the instructions for deoxidizers, dosages are indicated depending on this indicator.
A table with application rates is applied to the packaging of dolomite flour
The pH level in different parts of the same garden may differ. To determine it, you will need: a soil sample taken from a depth of 20-30 cm, and litmus paper. Take a spoonful of the analyzed soil and dilute it to the state of liquid mud with rainwater from a barrel. Dip litmus into the slurry and immediately apply to the indicator scale to determine the color. If you think that the color has not changed, then most likely the pH is between 6 and 7, that is, your soil is slightly acidic. If in doubt about the litmus paper's performance, dip it in 70% vinegar. She should blush.
Pay special attention to preplant weed control. The growing asparagus will entwine the entire garden with roots, they will get mixed up with each other, it will no longer be possible to disturb the ground in order to remove weeds. Therefore, dig up the area on the bayonet of the shovel, carefully removing all the roots. If you plant under a fence, then dig in sheets of slate or tin along the border with the street so that the root suckers of perennial weeds do not penetrate into the garden bed.
Video: asparagus in the garden, harvesting
Asparagus plant - description
Asparagus is a perennial vegetable plant. Her rhizome is powerful, developed, branched stems. On the branches, bundles of numerous needle-shaped branches are collected, growing from the axils of small, underdeveloped thorny or scaly leaves, at the base of which hard spurs are formed. Small flowers of asparagus, single or collected in racemose or thyroid inflorescences, are also found mostly in the leaf axils. Asparagus fruit is a berry with one or more seeds, clothed in a thick dark rind.
They eat young asparagus shoots that have just emerged from the ground. If leaf buds have already begun to bloom on the shoot, it becomes tough and is no longer suitable for food. Asparagus produces 9 to 12 shoots per season during peak fruiting - that's just two full servings of a side dish. It is such a modest yield that explains the high price of this vegetable. In our gardens, where from year to year we grow such familiar and healthy vegetable crops as carrots, beets, peas, beans, cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, squash and pumpkins, asparagus is still a rare guest.
For those who decide to grow this healthy and tasty vegetable on their site, we suggest using the information collected in our article on how to grow asparagus from seeds, how to plant asparagus in open ground, what are the conditions for growing asparagus and can asparagus be grown at home conditions.
Watering and feeding
White asparagus, like other types of crops, require increased watering, and especially in the first few weeks after the seedlings are transplanted.
If the summer is dry, watering is increased - the soil should constantly be in a slightly moist state. If this requirement is not met, you will have to harvest the crop with affected taste: the shoots of plants will become bitter, acquire a fibrous structure.
All types of culture, including Argentinean asparagus, love proper care. Do not forget to regularly weed the beds, adding after the first time a nutrient mixture from a solution of slurry with water (1: 6). After another 20 days, asparagus in the country can be fed with a solution of bird droppings, diluting the mixture in a ratio of 1:10. For the last time in a season, the culture is maintained with a complex mineral composition on the eve of frost.
A small bug that can completely destroy your crop is the asparagus leaf beetle. It usually appears in July on fairly tall stems. It is small in size, yellow or black in color. For its destruction of the asparagus leaf beetle, various insecticides are used, for example "Fufanon".
Asparagus can develop fungus. It affects the root system, first the stems die off, then the roots die. At the first signs of illness, treat the affected areas with Fundazol. With a severe disease of asparagus, you will have to completely remove the plant and plant new seedlings.
How to grow asparagus in the country
Hello dear friends!
Asparagus, or asparagus, is not only an ornamental plant used for cutting. It is a gourmet vegetable that you can easily grow in your garden. Fresh asparagus from the garden is much tastier and healthier than the one sold in stores. Grow asparagus in the country independently quite within the power of any gardener Agrotechnical techniques are quite simple and affordable.
For asparagus, you need to choose a well-lit place with light, preferably sandy soils. The reaction of the substrate should be neutral or slightly alkaline. Asparagus is planted in the fall. The plot must be well dug up, since the root system of plants penetrates quite deeply into the soil. All lumps must be carefully broken up and mineral and organic (compost or manure) fertilizer added to the substrate.
On the prepared site, at a distance of about 1 meter, dig a trench 40 cm wide. The depth should be 30 cm. In order for the plants to receive more light later, it is advisable to orient the trenches in the north-south direction. Strong annual asparagus are used for planting. They are placed in a trench, leaving gaps of 30-40 cm between them. The root collar is covered with earth for a few centimeters. In the course of the trench, a ridge of earth should be obtained. So that the plantings do not freeze out in winter, they must be diligently mulched.
Next spring, it is necessary to revise the planted plants. In place of the dead specimens, new ones should be planted. Since in the first year of growing asparagus does not yet have time to grow, you can use the empty space between the rows for planting legumes. They will give a harvest in the fall, and their roots will additionally enrich the soil with nitrogenous compounds. Asparagus needs regular watering, otherwise the shoots will taste bitter. Do not expect asparagus to yield a rich harvest in the first year of growing. It will take at least two to three years for larger and longer shoots to appear.
The most delicious in asparagus is not green, but white (etiolated) shoots. To increase their number, you can cover the sprouts in the spring with an impenetrable shelter, for example, boxes. Cut off shoots underground. Harvesting is not recommended in sunny weather, it is better to do it in the morning or wait until evening. Shoots cut on a sunny afternoon are less tasty. After harvesting 2-3 times, the shelters can be removed, and the asparagus can be fed with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. The plants are then given time to recover their biomass.
In late autumn, the aerial part of the asparagus must be cut off, sprinkled with soil on the bushes and mulched with humus. Asparagus is left to winter in this form. Plants can be grown in one place up to 18-20 years.
Be sure to try grow asparagus in the country... See you, friends!