Camellia: home care, reproduction, transplant, species, photo

Camellia: home care, reproduction, transplant, species, photo

Houseplants Published: 08 November 2011 Reprinted: Last edits:

Botanical description

Camellia (lat.Camellia) belongs to the Teahouse family and includes approximately 80 plant species. It grows in the subtropical and tropical zones of East and Southeast Asia, in Japan and Korea, on the Indochina Peninsula, on about. Java and the Philippine Islands. Camellia was brought to Europe for the first time from the Philippines by the priest and naturalist Camelius G.I., in whose honor the plant got its name.
Camellia are small evergreen trees or shrubs. Simple leaves are ovoid or elliptical, leathery to the touch, glossy; are both blunt and pointed, grow in two or three pieces or singly. Petals with a large number of stamens are pure red, pink or white, and sometimes they are variegated.
Some types of camellias are prized for their decorative qualities - both for their beautiful leaves and flowers. When growing camellia indoors, it not only grows well and blooms, but can bear fruit - for this you need to provide it with proper care. Novice growers often fail to grow camellia due to care errors - insufficient lighting, improper soil mixture, too hot air or low humidity. By following the rules described below, you can grow a beautiful and healthy plant.

Briefly about growing

  • Bloom: 1 to 3 months from November or December.
  • Lighting: bright diffused light.
  • Temperature: in spring and summer - from 20 to 25 ºC, in autumn - 18 ºC, and from December to February, during flowering - 8-12 ºC.
  • Watering: moderate and even as soon as the topsoil is dry. During the cool wintering, watering is scarce.
  • Air humidity: increased. The pot with the plant must be kept on a pallet with damp expanded clay. Before buds appear, you can spray the leaves with water at room temperature.
  • Top dressing: throughout the year, once every three weeks with a complete mineral fertilizer.
  • Cropping: at the end of autumn, the tops of the shoots are pruned or pinched to stimulate the development of axillary buds.
  • Rest period: not pronounced.
  • Transfer: young plants - annually, adults - as needed. For old plants, the top layer of the potting medium is changed annually.
  • Substrate: 2 parts of leafy land, 2 parts of peat, 1 part of turf and 1 part of sand.
  • Reproduction: seeds, cuttings and grafting.
  • Pests: spider mite.
  • Diseases: all room camellia problems are associated with improper care or inadequate living conditions.

Read more about growing camellia below.

Camellia photo

Home care for camellia

Lighting

The camellia houseplant feels best on windows from the east and west, because diffused bright lighting is optimal for it. On the north side, the plant will not have enough light for good growth, and on the south side, the plant needs to be shaded from the direct rays of the sun. In order for the plant to grow proportionally, the pot with it needs to be turned from time to time, but under no circumstances should you do this when buds have appeared on the home camellia - the buds may crumble. In the summer, it would be good to take a room camellia out into the fresh air, without exposing it to the open sun.

Temperature

In summer and spring, the air temperature should be between 20 and 25 ° C. For the formation of kidneys, the temperature should not be higher than 18 ° C, and when camellia at home from December to February blooms - from 8 to 12 ° C. If the temperature is higher, firstly, the plant can shed its buds, and secondly, the decorative effect of the flowers will decrease. Flower buds can be laid even at lower temperatures, if the daylight hours are short. Camellias need to provide fresh air circulation.

Watering camellia

The camellia plant should not be poured - it should be watered abundantly, but evenly, as soon as the topsoil dries up. Pour with soft water, let it settle before watering. If the camellia flower is kept in cool conditions in winter, water must be extremely careful so that the soil does not acidify. If this happens, the plant will shed its buds and the leaves will take on a brown hue. And if the camellia is dried out, then the leaves will fall off.

Spraying

The home camellia flower loves very humid air, so the pots should be placed on a pallet with moistened pebbles or expanded clay, and the leaves should be sprayed with soft water. If the plant is blooming, then you need to make sure that water does not get on the flowers.

Top dressing

Homemade camellia is fed every three weeks throughout the year. Mineral fertilizers are taken full (1 g of fertilizers per 1 liter of water).

Pruning

In order for the axillary buds to grow better, camellia shoots are pruned in room conditions at the end of autumn.

Camellia transplant

It is necessary to transplant young specimens of camellia annually. If the plant blooms every year, it needs replanting every two years. Transplanted in the spring, while pinching the shoots for better branching. The soil should be acidic with a pH of 4.5 to 5. A distinctive feature of indoor camellia compared to many subtropical plants is the ability to grow in soils with a pH of 4 or lower. The soil mixture is made up of peat, turf, leafy soil and sand (2: 1: 2: 1). Plants growing in tubs need to top up the soil with fertilizers every year. A high-quality drainage must be built in a container with a camellia.

Growing from seeds

Seeds should be sown in 5cm pots one at a time. When the seedlings have two leaves, they are dived into the pots more. When propagated by seeds, the characteristics of varieties may be lost, therefore, to preserve them, camellias are propagated by cuttings. The signs of camellia varieties are especially valuable in ornamental gardening, for this reason they propagate camellia vegetatively (cuttings).

Reproduction of camellia by cuttings

Ornamental camellia varieties are usually propagated in July and January using 6-8 cm apical cuttings that are not yet lignified. Cuttings (they should have from 3 to 5 developed leaves) are planted in boxes, and the temperature is kept at the level of 20-23 ° C. The soil mixture is prepared from equal parts of peat and sand. When planted in summer, rooting can take up to two months, and a little longer in winter. The container with cuttings must be sprayed and watered. To speed up rooting, cuttings can be soaked in a solution of heteroauxin, and then periodically watered, but this can either speed up the rooting process or not affect it in any way. When the cuttings take root, they are transplanted into pots 7 cm in diameter in a substrate of peat, leaf, turf and sand (2: 2: 1: 1). Sometimes grafts are carried out on rooted cuttings, and sometimes on one- or two-year-old camellias. First, it is watered abundantly, after which, to accelerate the lignification of the petioles, watering is reduced.

Reproduction by grafting

If the camellia variety is rooting poorly, it is worth propagating by grafting. This is done in January, using the developed buds from the top of the shoot. After two months, the grafts will germinate when kept at 20 ° C. Young plants need to be sprayed, watered, controlled humidity, cut off shoots and avoid burns on the leaves (otherwise they will fall off). In the second year, the plant is transplanted into 9-cm pots with the same substrate, and in the third year, the camellia plant is transferred into pots 11-14 cm in diameter into a substrate of leaf, turf, heather, peat soil and sand (2: 2: 2: 2: 1).

Diseases and pests of camellia

Camellia's buds fall off. If the soil is allowed to acidify, the buds will fall off, and the leaves will take on a brown tint.

Brown spots on camellia leaves - these are sunburns. The plant needs to be shaded from the sun, especially in the summer afternoon.

Camellia leaves fall if the plant does not have enough moisture for a long period.

Camellia dies. The reasons for the death of camellia in novice flower growers: improper soil composition, poor illumination, too low humidity, too high air temperature.

Camellia pests. The main pest that harms camellia is the spider mite.

Views

Mountain Camellia / Camellia sasanqua

Or camellia miyagii or camellia tegmentosa (Camellia tegmentosa). The homeland of this species is about. Okinawa and Fr. Kyushu. These shrubs grow in height from 3 to 5 m, the branches are thin, and the shoots are pubescent with red hairs. Leaves reach a maximum of 7 cm in length and 3 cm in width; the shape of the leaves is elongated ovate or elliptical with denticles along the edges; the upper side of the leaf is dark green and glossy; the middle vein is pubescent on the underside. Simple, fragrant 7-centimeter flowers grow one at a time or 2-3 and come in red, pink, or white. Abundant flowering period from November to January. Grow best in cool rooms.

Chinese Camellia / Camellia sinensis

Or camellia bohea (Camellia bohea). It grows in gorges, on mountain slopes and in the forests of China. In height, these trees or shrubs grow up to 15 m. Leaves are up to 10 cm long and up to 4 cm wide, elliptical or ovoid, glossy and dark green on the upper side; young leaves are covered with white hairs, and adults are naked. White axillary flowers grow on short pedicels in 1, 2 or 3 pieces.

Japanese Camellia / Camellia japonica

This species can be found in Japanese, Chinese and Korean forests. These trees or shrubs grow up to 15 m in height. The leaves are pointed at the top and jagged at the edges, leathery to the touch, dark green, glossy. They are in the shape of an egg or an ellipse, and reach a maximum of 10 cm in length. Simple 4-centimeter flowers grow in several or singly, there are double and semi-double; the color is pure red, pink or white, and there are variegated leaves. The flowering period is from December to April.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Tea
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information

Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Plants on K Tea


Camellia is an ornamental plant that is covered with large flowers of different colors in autumn and winter. But even during the dormant period, the decorative qualities of the camellia are also high, since the leaves of the flower are dense with a glossy surface.

Camellia is often referred to as the Chinese rose because of the similarities in both appearance and smell. If you provide the plant with proper care at home, then the camellia can grow up to 4 meters in height.

Camellia loves light, but diffused, so it is better to put it on the windows of the western and eastern sides of the house. If there is a place for it only on the southern windows, then you need to protect it from direct sunlight, but the north side for a flower is completely inappropriate, since there is not enough light. In the summer, it is better to take the plant outside, just do not leave it in a place where bright sunlight falls.

To form a beautiful bush, the pot with the plant must be periodically rotated around the axis, but in no case should this be done during the period when buds have formed on the plant, the camellia can simply drop them.

You may be interested in:

The main difficulty in growing camellia lies in the correct temperature control. So in spring and summer, camellia needs warmth, so the temperature should not be lower than 20 ° C. When buds begin to form on the plant, the temperature must be lowered to 18 ° C.

But during the flowering period, such a plant does not tolerate high temperatures at all, a maximum of 12 ° C. If the temperature is higher, then the flowers may lose their graceful appearance or completely fall off. Also, the room in which the camellia is located must be regularly ventilated.

  • How to water

In the hot season, the camellia needs to be watered regularly and abundantly, the main thing is to prevent the water from stagnating in the soil. Watering is necessary when the topsoil dries out. Watering is carried out only with settled soft water.

In winter, watering the camellia must be done carefully, since when overflowing, the soil will begin to acidify, this will lead to the leaves of the plant becoming brown, and the buds will simply die off. If, on the contrary, you dry out the soil, then the plant can shed all its leaves.

  • Humidity

Camellia needs to be systematically moistened, for example, with a spray bottle or put a pot with a plant on a tray with decorative pebbles and water. You need to spray the plant carefully so that water does not get on the flowers.

A humidifier can be placed in the room with the plant, which will simplify the task of maintaining the required humidity level.

  • Fertilizer

During the period of active growth, camellia needs to be fed with organic and mineral fertilizers. During the period of bud formation, feeding should be completely stopped. If you read the reviews of other flower growers, you can highlight that at home camellia responds well to a weak concentration of chicken droppings solution.

By the end of the flowering period, you can prune the plant by removing the excess part of the crown or by stimulating the growth of buds in the sinuses. This will allow you to get neat and beautiful bushes.

  • Transplant features

Camellia has a fairly developed root system, so every 2-3 years it needs to be transplanted into a larger pot. For transplantation, the soil plays an important role, it must be acidic and light, since heavy soil simply will not allow the roots to “breathe” freely and they will begin to rot. Alkaline and calcareous soils are also not suitable, in which the plant will simply die.

To transplant the plant without damaging the roots, it is transferred into a large pot right along with a lump of earth, and then free space is covered with fresh soil. After transplanting, in the first days, it is important to spray the plant every day and monitor the soil moisture. If you add a little hydrogel to the soil, this will provide optimal moisture for the flower and prevent its roots from rotting.

On the timing of the transplant, the opinions of florists differ. Some believe that the plant should be transplanted at the end of flowering, others believe that the optimal period for transplanting is the flowering period itself, however, with the second option, you can harm the flowers. But in the period from April to the end of autumn, it is strictly forbidden to transplant camellia, because this is the period of its active growth.

After buying a camellia, it should not be exposed to stressful situations, which means that it cannot be transplanted immediately. At home, her care in the early days will be to provide complete rest in a cool room with a minimum of sunlight for two weeks. How to transplant a flower correctly can be seen in the video.


Types and varieties of camellia for growing at home

For indoor cultivation, only 3 types of camellia are more often used, as well as a large number of hybrids and varieties derived from them.

Mountain or Miyagi

A shrub native to the islands of Kyushu and Okinawa. In nature, it grows more than 3 m in height. Leaves are green, ovate or elliptical, 3-5 cm long. The outer surface of the leaf plate is smooth, the back is pubescent. The flowers are simple, up to 7 cm in diameter, they are single or collected in 2-3 pieces. The shrub blooms in November with red, pink or white flowers.

Japanese

A shrub that in nature can reach 12 m. It has many forms with different shades, terry and the arrangement of petals. Leaves are glossy, ovoid or elliptical up to 10 cm long. Flowers with a diameter of 4 cm. In indoor conditions, the species prefers coolness.

Many varieties have been bred on the basis of the Japanese camellia. For home cultivation, they are often used:

  • Adolphe audusson
  • Alba Simplex
  • Pink Perfection.

Chinese

A shrub found in China. There it can reach 10 m in height. The leaf plates are up to 7 cm long, they are dark green on top, light green on the inside. Young leaves are pubescent. In adult plants, they are glossy. Flowers are solitary, axillary, white, bloom on short stalks of 1-3 pieces. Flowering begins in August and lasts for several months.


Camellia species

The international classification of camellia includes more than 250 species.

Japanese camellia. The most common plant among gardeners is in the form of a spreading shrub or tree 1.5-6 m high. The stems are covered with a smooth grayish bark. During the flowering period, a lot of flowers appear, located between leathery dark green leaves. Flowering begins in November-May. In oriental medicine, the species is used to fight cancer. Varieties:

  • Alba - white camellia with simple flowers
  • Winter rose - large double buds of white or pinkish color.

Camellia Chinese. The variety serves as a raw material for making tea. It is a bush or tree up to 10 m in height with spreading branches. Leathery dark green leaves grow 5-7 cm in length. Fragrant single flowers in the axils of the leaves consist of a five-membered calyx and a simple corolla with a diameter of 25-30 mm. The color of the flowers is creamy yellow or white.

Camellia sasanqua (mountain). Woody shrub 2.5-3 m high consists of branched, pounded shoots. The annual growth is covered with light pubescence. Gradually, it is replaced by a brownish-green or brown smooth bark. Another dark green short-peaked foliage has serrated edges and pubescent along the central vein. Large sessile flowers are arranged singly or in groups of up to 3 buds. Their color is dominated by pink and red, but there are also white flowers. The plant is used as an oilseed crop. Based on this species, several decorative garden varieties have been obtained that are resistant to frost, and therefore suitable for growing in temperate climates. The most famous varieties:

  • Bicolor - there is a wide pink border along the edge of the petals, and the bases are white in color
  • Chansonnier - double pink flowers
  • Cleopatra is a simple corolla with elongated pink petals.


What conditions do succulents need

Caring for haworthias is not too difficult, but in order for their appearance to always be at their best, you need to follow some rules:

  • Lighting. All types are demanding on lighting. They need a lot of bright sun, but not its direct rays. Therefore, it will be correct to choose east or west windows for them. The northern ones will not work, the plants can stretch out there and lose their color.
  • Air temperature. This indicator is also very important. A comfortable temperature for Haworthia is considered to be up to +30 during the growth period and not higher than +18 in winter.
  • Attention! It tolerates dry air well and does not need to be sprayed.

    • The soil. Succulents need a special substrate, it should be loose and moisture-permeable. You can do it yourself by taking the cactus substrate in half with perlite, peat, brick chips and sand in equal parts.
    Attention! These strong-rooted houseplants require a tall, narrow pot and good drainage.
    • Watering. This procedure should be performed about 2 times a week, in hot weather a little more often, but always after the earthen coma has completely dried out. In winter, it is required to water the plant only 1-2 times a month. At home, it is preferable to water through the pallet.
    • Top dressing. For active and healthy growth, they are needed every month. You can take any complex fertilizer or special fertilizer for succulents. In winter, this procedure is superfluous.

    Video about caring for camellia at home

    The camellia flower is beautiful and capricious. When growing it at home, it is necessary to strictly observe the conditions in which it is used to growing and developing. And at the same time, the plant is easy to care for and does not require special approaches when watering, feeding and other life support methods. Try it. And a magical beauty flower - camellia - will settle in your house for many years.

    Choosing a new houseplant?

    We offer the following types of houseplants. Care for each of them is described on our website at the link:


    Watch the video: Garden Tip 9 - Camellias at Norfolk Botanical Gardens