Who of the gardeners and summer residents is not familiar with the picture: the harvest is ripening on the apple tree, and suddenly, under the weight of the fruits, one branch breaks off completely or sags.
Experienced gardeners will say: it was necessary to put a support under this branch in a timely manner, and the trouble would not have happened.
This is true. But it was possible to prevent a break earlier, because the fault is the small angle of the branch from the trunk.
Branches extending from the trunks at an acute angle, less than 40 °, as well as stepchildren and two-vertex trunks (see photo) are potentially prone to fractures, especially under load.
And here the impact of a large harvest, or strong winds, heavy snowfalls, etc., can affect. The reason is the ingrowth of sections of the bark into the fork from above, and as a result, poor accretion of the branch and trunk wood in this place.
Of course, such faults do not always occur. They are especially unlikely at a young age. But the older the tree, the higher the probability of breakage. And the harm and danger of death from the resulting wounds is greater.
Very often, such significant damage cannot be healed. Spores of pathogenic fungi caught in the wound cause rot, and after a few years the tree dies.
But even if this does not happen, then as a result of the fracture, the crown becomes one-sided, ugly, i.e. its aesthetic effect decreases. And for fruit crops, the yield is noticeably reduced for many years.
To avoid this, it is best not to let such branches grow right away - to cut them out. Or, if it is still possible, bend it back. And adults, potentially dangerous or already starting to break off the trunks and branches, must be carefully fastened with bolted joints.
To do this, drill through the branches and trunks at the place of their accretion, insert a bolt of the required length and tighten it with a nut.
Before this, the branch, stepson or trunks should be pulled in (pull the break) and temporarily fixed in the desired position with a rope or wire. After that, it is imperative to counter the tightened nut with the second, the same one.
After that, it is better to cut off the excess part of the bolt, and cut the threads so that they do not spontaneously unscrew when the tree sways under the pressure of the wind. And only after that you can remove the harness, and cover the crack with garden var.
There is an even better way - to fix a fragile branch using the bio-chatting method, connecting and splicing suitable branches in the shape of a triangle, or, if there is no such branch to create such a rigid structure, grafting a stalk to connect it to the appropriate place.
Vladimir Starostin, dendrologist,
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Spruce is an evergreen monoecious tree that is distinguished by its slenderness. In height, it can reach 40 meters or more. During the first 10–15 years, the root system of such a plant is pivotal. Then the death of the main root is observed, and the tree continues to live at the expense of the roots, which are superficial and are located within a radius of 15 to 20 meters from the trunk. Due to the superficial root system, the spruce belongs to the unstable trees, or rather, to the windfall trees. The crown has a conical or pyramidal shape. The whorled branches are horizontally spread or drooping. During the first few years, the plant does not show the growth of lateral shoots. The bark is gray in color; it exfoliates from the trunk in thin plates. This culture has needle-shaped needles. Short hard sharp needles, as a rule, are tetrahedral, but there are also flat ones. They are arranged spirally, in some cases in two rows, with the lifespan of one needle about 6 years, and sometimes even longer. Every year the plant loses up to 1/7 of its needles.
These trees are gymnosperms. Male strobila are represented by small earrings growing from the sinuses, located at the tips of last year's branches, the beginning of pollen production occurs in May. Female strobili are also placed at the ends of branches, they are pollinated with the help of the wind, after which they are observed to grow and hang. The fall of woody or leathery cones of a pointed oblong-cylindrical shape is observed after the seeds have ripened. The cone contains an axis, and the seed and covering scales are placed on it. In October, the seeds are fully ripe, after which the cones open, and they spill out, carried by the wind in different directions. The seeds remain viable for 8-10 years. Fruiting of such trees can begin at the age of 10-60 years, it depends on the growing conditions. The average life span of spruce is 250–300 years, but specimens over 500 years old are quite common.
The main reasons for the death of apple trees
How to avoid them
Gardens that are bursting with an abundance of apples are not uncommon, and the apple trees themselves live for a very, very long time. But it also happens that the garden, not having time to enter its prime (medium-sized trees give the maximum yield for 15-18 years), begins to wither and die.
Podoprevanie is a real scourge of apple trees on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks. Of course, apple trees on low-growing rootstocks have many advantages. First of all, it is much easier and faster to get yields from them, which is important in regions that are unfavorable in terms of natural conditions for apple trees. But here the rules of the game are different - in no case need to fill up the root collar (it is better to install rectangular fences that would not artificially allow the soil level to rise next to the apple tree trunk). Otherwise, the death of the apple tree will not be far off.
In vigorous apple trees, which in most cases are grafted onto wild (that is, grown from seed), the problem of podoprevanie is not so acute. The fact is that the wild Antonovka is considered the most resistant to podoprevka among apple trees, it basically does not threaten it. Although filling the root collar is also not recommended.
Turning trees up to the point of falling is also not uncommon. On vigorous apple trees with a deep and very powerful root system, eversion is practically impossible. But on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks, it happens very often, since their root system is distinguished by a superficial arrangement, and trees by themselves cannot resist without the presence of supports. Strong winds in spring and high soil moisture during prolonged autumn rains contribute to their eversion.
To prevent this situation, you need to provide support.
To avoid fractures, you need to correctly shape the crown of the apple trees. The formation of apple trees is a separate serious topic. But in a nutshell, the skeletal branches should have an angle of inclination of 60-700, and not less. At acute angles of inclination, branch breaks are possible. This can happen under the influence of strong winds or when the branches are weighed down by the harvest.
The consequences of fractures of skeletal branches are extremely serious - as a rule, they cannot be saved, and with significant damage to the trunk, this can lead to the gradual death of the apple tree, since the wounds formed during the fractures are too large and do not heal.
As for damage to the bark, wounds can appear from sunburn, from frostbites, and from damage from mice and hares. None of the most insignificant wounds should be taken carelessly, because any of them can become a real gateway for infection.
And it is quite possible that this infection will lead to the loss of the tree in the future. This is especially true, again, on apple trees on low-growing rootstocks, which are more susceptible to such terrible diseases as black cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to immediately cover the cuts with garden pitch during the pruning process and do everything possible so that the tree does not have additional wounds from frost holes, burns or the destructive consequences of the winter invasion of mice. Hare wounds are less significant in volume, but they can also spoil a lot of good branches.
Remember that it takes a long time to heal wounds (sometimes many years) and with very variable success, especially on elderly and weakened trees. It is much easier to avoid the appearance of wounds, and it is necessary to protect trees from wounds from the first year of life, because even then, forgetting about safety measures, you can "reward" them with severe burns, which will then have to be treated for the rest of your life.
To avoid wounds from frostbites and sunburn, you need to follow these simple rules.
1. In young trees (the first few years of life), it is weak to wrap the trunks with ordinary medical bandages. Winding can be done at any time of summer or autumn (the main thing is that this work is done by late autumn). Do not be afraid, there will be no bandages on the trunk, but your plants will be reliably protected. True, for adult apple trees with their thick trunks, this option can be quite expensive in terms of the cost of bandages. Therefore, over time, you will have to switch to whitewashing, although the use of bandages is more convenient, simpler and more practical.
2. In adult trees, regularly carry out late autumn whitewashing of boles and bases of skeletal branches with the composition: 10 liters of water, 2.5 kg of quicklime, 1 kg of clay and 0.3 kg of copper sulfate. You can add 20 g of heated wood glue to this composition for adhesion.
Storage of seedlings indoors
We brought the plants and we see that the soil is already completely frozen, say, 6-7 degrees below zero. It is no longer possible to plant or bury plants in such soil. Then we resort to the old, kind and time-tested method: we place the seedlings in the basement, in wet sawdust. In this case, the roots can either be packed in a plastic bag (if it is very cold in the basement - that is, almost like on the street) or not packed, but simply sprinkled with wet sawdust, if in the basement there is about zero towards a negative value.
The main thing is that, at the same time, not only the root system of the seedling, but also the lower part, up to the root collar, is sprinkled under the sawdust, and if it is a one-year-old (that is, one twig), then a couple of centimeters higher.
Seedlings wrapped for transportation
After the seedlings are stored in the basement, start monitoring the temperature in this room. So, if it suddenly began to grow and rise higher, then you will have to open the vents and doors to let in cold air and lower the temperature, because even at five degrees above zero, the buds can begin to wake up, that is, the plants will begin to wake up, and this does not bode well good.
You can store seedlings, if winter suddenly came, not only in the basement. The main thing is to ensure the optimal temperature and not allow the sawdust to dry out. For this, in fact, any non-freezing room with moderate humidity in it is quite suitable - this is a cellar, basement, balcony (of course, if it is not heated, but necessarily glazed), where the temperature is kept at a level from zero to minus one (plus- minus a couple of degrees, but no more).
Storage of stone fruit seedlings
As promised, let's talk about seedlings of stone fruit crops, they can also be stored in the basement if the soil is already frozen. The main thing with stone fruits is to remove all the foliage, because it draws moisture from the shoots, and often stone fruits are sold with an abundance of leaf blades, especially cherries.
Stone fruits can be stored in separate boxes or boxes, while it is better not to use plastic bags: the root collar is very sensitive to podoprevaniya in these crops. Remember to keep the sawdust slightly damp while doing this.
Be sure to carefully inspect the roots before placing in a box or box for stone fruit crops. If it seems to you that the roots are not moist enough, then it will be okay if you put them in cold water for a couple of hours.
Digging in a seedling with a closed root system. © csuhort
What trees can not be planted in the country and why
- Trees that should not be planted according to folk signs
- Vampire Plants and Donor Plants
- TOP-4 "donor", which is better to refrain from planting
- Energy negative trees
- Trees not worth planting according to the laws of logic
- TOP 10 trees that need to be planted in the country
- Why it is impossible to grow conifers on the site: top 5 reasons
- Reason one: increased fire hazard
- Reason two: powerful roots
- Reason three: acidification of the earth and excessive moisture absorption
- Reason four: negative impact on human health
- Reason five: bad omens
- What trees can not be planted next to each other
There is an opinion among the people that there are plants that are strictly forbidden to plant in their summer cottage. Some of these plants are capable of filling the entire territory, spreading the roots several tens of meters underground. Others, it turns out, are provocateurs of serious diseases. Still others become home to unwanted microorganisms. And the fourth are even capable of bringing trouble to the house. And as part of our conversation today, we will try to discuss all the listed categories of trees and shrubs, express real concerns and offer an alternative.
Favorite pear of Simirenko - Margarita Marilya
At one time, Simirenko, an outstanding pomologist and expert on pear culture, spoke of him as a variety that must be kept in every home garden.
What is she - Margarita
Margarita Marilla is an autumn pear variety introduced into cultivation in France in 1874. Its author is Marilya.
The tree is weak, scab-resistant, rather frost-resistant. Since the flowering period is late and long, the cultivar does not show increased sensitivity to wet and cold weather. In the south, it almost never freezes, even in the year before last, when eight days after flowering of this variety, frosts (up to - 4 ° С on the soil surface and up to - 2.6 ° С in the air) did not cause the death of the ovary, and eight-year-old trees were with an excellent yield of 22 kg per tree with an average fruit weight of 320 g.
Pollinators for Marilla
The pear pollen of this variety is not viable, so it needs pollinators. The best are Parisian, Dessertnaya, Bere Kievskaya, Zest of Crimea, Favorite Joanon, Reale Turin. The variety has a slightly branched pyramidal crown shape and sharp angles of skeletal branches. Therefore, when forming the crown, it is necessary to change the angle of deflection of the branches by bending, deformation (twisting) and shortening to the outer kidney.
The low excitability of the buds characteristic of the variety (only the upper one grows on the continuation shoots) is overcome by shortening the long shoots during the formation of the skeleton and in subsequent age periods. This operation stimulates lateral branching and fruit wood formation. During the fruiting period, it is impossible to abuse pruning to shorten the small annual growth, usually ending with a fruit bud, so as not to reduce the yield.
Features of the
In terms of growth characteristics, color of shoots and external similarity of fruits, this variety resembles the varieties Bere Clergeau and Madame Bale, but in terms of taste it significantly surpasses them, moreover, it ripens earlier. It begins to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year, when grown on seed stock, on quince - in the second or third year. It should be noted that the variety is not well compatible with quince; an intermediary is needed for normal growth. You need to resort to quince stock only because of soil conditions.That is, in cases where soil water is at a depth of about a meter, in conditions where seed stocks cannot develop normally.
Fruits are large or very large, lumpy, not aligned both in shape and in weight, which reaches 200-600 g or more. The fruits are tied one at a time and, despite their considerable size, firmly adhere to the tree until the onset of biological maturity. The peduncle is short, thick, curved, at the base there is a fleshy tubercle (a characteristic feature of the variety).
The skin of the fruit is smooth, golden yellow, with brown spots. For the most part, the fruits are not colored, but sometimes on a sunny side, especially on light, sandy soils, the fruits are covered with a continuous blush.
The pulp is yellow, tender, without granulation, juicy and sweet, with a nutmeg aroma, tasting score - 4.7-4.9 points. Removable ripeness of fruits in Kiev begins in the last decade of August, when the fruits still have a green color. The fruits of this variety, as well as a number of other autumn varieties (Lyubimitsa Klappa, Williams, Malevchanka), should not be left on the tree until they are fully ripe (yellowing): their pulp acquires a coarse-grained consistency and significantly loses its taste. The collected fruits are stored for 2.5-3 weeks, acquiring a golden yellow color, ripening at different times.
Recall that due to the low growth of this variety, it must be grafted on well-developed wilds, and when breeding on quince, use an intermediary (Kure, Bere Ardanpon, Pass Crassan). Only in this case can one expect to receive a full-fledged, sufficiently high-quality and viable planting material.
It bears fruit regularly, the yield is high. The variety is not particularly picky about soils, but prefers fertile, well-irrigated. Margarita Marilia can be recommended for grafting of adult, low-value, but sufficiently adapted varieties with healthy skeletal branches. In terms of taste, this is one of the best autumn dessert pear varieties.
Raspberry pests and control
Aphids on raspberries
Raspberry leaf aphids and raspberry shoot aphids are widespread pests of raspberries, blackberries and other garden berry crops. Shoot aphids settle in colonies at the ends of shoots and in raspberry inflorescences, and leaf aphids live in small groups on the underside of leaves and feed on their juice. The shoot aphid slows down the growth of raspberries, and the leaf aphid, in addition, is a carrier of viral diseases. The method of combating aphids consists in spraying the plants with karbofos or actellik during the period of raspberry budding.
Spider mite on raspberries
This insect affects not only raspberries, but also gooseberries, black and red currants, strawberries, blueberries, elderberries, roses and grapes. The mite, located on the underside of the leaves and feeding on their sap, braids the leaves with a thin cobweb. The damaged areas become discolored, with the course of the disease, the leaves become marbled, gradually dry and eventually fall off. The harbinger of the appearance of ticks on raspberries is a stable and prolonged heat without precipitation. An effective measure in the fight against ticks is spraying raspberry bushes (gooseberries, currants, etc.) with acaricides, which include drugs such as malofos, phosphamide, colloidal sulfur, cydial, metaphos. If the dominance of ticks is too strong, the treatment of plants with acaricides can be carried out repeatedly - up to four times a season with an interval of ten days. In order not to create a comfortable environment for ticks, in addition to watering in arid heat, they practice spraying the bushes with water in the evening.
Gall midges on raspberries
Two types of raspberries and gall midges are harmful - the raspberry gall midge, or the shoot gall midge and the raspberry stem gall midge, laying eggs in cracks and damage to the bark on the lower part of the shoots, forming galls - swellings. In the affected shoots, the bark dies and exfoliates, they dry out. Shoots with characteristic signs of damage (swelling in the root areas of the stems) must be cut out and destroyed along with the pests, the soil in which gall midges winter in spring and autumn must be dug to a depth of 15 cm, and the plants must be treated with karbofos or actellik.
The raspberry nutcracker behaves in a similar way, laying the larvae in the raspberry shoots, on which galls are formed from this. If this pest is detected, it is necessary to spray raspberries with the same karbofos or actellik, as well as ambush, before flowering.
This is a medium-sized insect up to 4 mm in length, covered with yellow or gray hairs. It hibernates in the upper soil layer, and by the end of May it moves into raspberry buds and eats them away, also damaging open flowers and leaves. At the end of July, the larvae return to the soil again, pupate there in order to turn into beetles in the fall. It is necessary to get rid of raspberry beetles during the budding period, shaking them off the bush and destroying them. It is obligatory to dig up the soil under the bushes and in the aisles during the pupation period of the larvae. Good results in the destruction of this pest are obtained by spraying raspberries with confidor, decis or ten percent solution of karbofos.
This bug harms not only raspberries, but also strawberries, so the appearance of a weevil in a summer cottage is highly undesirable. Beetles overwinter under fallen leaves and clods of earth, and in spring they lay eggs in buds, where the larva feeds on a flower, eating it from the inside. One female weevil, laying one egg per bud, is capable of damaging up to 50 flowers in this way. In June-July, a new generation of leaf-eating weevils appears. To prevent the beetles from destroying the crop, spray the raspberry plant during budding and no later than five days before the flowers open, with malofos, actellic, metaphos or other preparations of a similar effect.
Raspberry kidney moth
It is a butterfly with dark brown wings with small golden spots, a moth caterpillar is red with a dark brown head. Most of all, this insect harms early raspberry varieties. Caterpillars overwinter in cracks in stems or under plant debris on the ground, and in early spring they move to shoots and gnaw out the buds, and then they penetrate into the flesh of the shoot, pupate there at the end of May, and from the beginning of flowering of raspberries, butterflies fly out of pupae, laying eggs in raspberry flowers ... The caterpillars emerging from them eat the berries, destroying the raspberry crop. In order not to help the bud moth to reproduce, do not leave stumps from them when pruning old shoots. Spray the raspberry bush with confidor, spark, decis, or 3% karbofos emulsion in early spring, when the buds are just starting to swell.
Raspberry stem fly
- is also a dangerous pest, the larvae of which gnaw out spiral passages inside the stems from above to the roots, which is why the tops of the shoots wither, then turn black and rot. When flowering begins, the larvae go into the soil, where they hibernate and turn into butterflies that fly out in the spring and lay the larvae, eating the stem from the inside. Examine the bushes carefully and immediately cut off the affected shoot tops to a healthy stem. Spray raspberries with actellik or karbofos in early spring, when they are just starting to grow shoots. In the fall, remove fallen leaves from the site.
Raspberry glass behaves in about the same way, but it prefers to winter in the core of the stem or root of the raspberry, forming swellings on them. That is why it is very difficult to destroy it with an insecticide. Cut out old shoots that will no longer bear fruit, without leaving a hemp from them, make sure that there are no cracks and mechanical damage on the stems.