We plant eggplants in open ground: the secrets of a bountiful harvest

We plant eggplants in open ground: the secrets of a bountiful harvest

Eggplant is a vegetable that not every gardener undertakes to grow. It is very thermophilic and has a long growing season. In the open field, it is not planted everywhere: in the middle lane, sowing eggplants may not bring the expected success. Nevertheless, his agricultural technology does not require anything special: it takes time, warmth, moisture and very fertile soil.

Choosing a place for planting, preparing the soil and beds

Eggplants are very demanding on conditions, they will not grow where they have to. Since the blue ones are very thermophilic, they choose a place for the garden that is well lit by the sun, protected from cold winds. Therefore, there should be a house wall, a blank fence or a row of bushes nearby. It is unacceptable to plant eggplants in lowlands where rainwater accumulates, or where groundwater passes close: the culture is in need of moisture, but does not tolerate waterlogging.

The best soils are light, but water-absorbing sandy loam with a neutral reaction of the environment. Even in loamy soils, a small amount of sand is added, and the clay is unsuitable for eggplant: such soils need to be corrected for more than one year. The garden bed can be of any convenient size, but they begin to prepare it in the fall, carefully digging up the area with the addition of large doses of organic fertilizers and the simultaneous removal of perennial weeds. Anything will do except fresh manure.

When digging 1 m2 bring in a bucket of sawdust and rotted manure, as well as up to two buckets of peat. If there is no peat, the amount of humus (or good compost) should be doubled. In addition to organic matter, add a liter can of wood ash and a small amount of mineral fertilizers (for example, 2-3 tablespoons of nitrophoska). However, if there is a sufficient amount of peat and high-quality humus, you can do without mineral fertilizers.

Since eggplants are very fond of warmth, warm beds are often prepared for them, especially in not too southern regions. For this purpose, a hole is dug up to a depth of 20 cm. Brushwood, tree twigs, fallen leaves, sawdust, various household waste, food waste, etc. are placed in the hole. The resulting pile is generously watered with infusion of manure or bird droppings, and then a layer of good fertile soil is poured so that you get a bed up to 30 cm high.

A warm bed allows the eggplant roots to be constantly in a comfortable environment

The sides of the bed, if necessary, are fenced off with any flat material, for example, old wide boards. For the winter, the top layer is slightly dug again and waiting for spring. In the spring, shortly before planting the seedlings, the bed is loosened again, and the day before planting it is well spilled with warm water. It is advisable to add a handful of mullein or quite a bit of bird droppings to a bucket of water.

Preparation of planting material

Eggplants have a very long growing season. Therefore, it is impossible to do without growing seedlings in almost any climatic zone, and they begin to prepare seedlings from the end of winter. Sowing with seeds in a garden bed is possible only in the very south of our country, and even there, to get early harvests, they cannot do without seedlings. By the time of planting on the garden bed, the seedlings should be in pots for more than two months, so eggplants are sown at home among the first.

How to test seeds for germination

Of all the available varieties of eggplant, you must choose a zoned one. It should be borne in mind that in the central region in the open field, only early or even super-early varieties can be grown. It is worth looking at what the variety is recommended for: for greenhouses or open ground. If the seeds are not very fresh, even in winter one should take the time and check them for germination, given that even this check can take up to two weeks.

Therefore, already in winter, it is necessary to get a few seeds from the bag (no matter how much, but at least 6 pieces) and soak for a day in water, then spread on a wet cloth and place in a warm place (about 30 ° C). In the morning and in the evening, it is necessary to conduct an audit and, if necessary, moisten the fabric. If in 7-10 days in this warmth at least half of the seeds are baked, you can skip buying new ones.

It will not be possible to achieve 100% germination; if half hatched, the experiment can be stopped

How long does eggplant sprout?

Eggplant seeds are slow-witted, sprout slowly. It is even difficult to say exactly how long it takes for them to do this: when sowing with dry seeds, the first shoots may appear within seven days, and then new loops can be expected every day. This process can last up to three weeks, which, of course, is unacceptable. Therefore, eggplant seeds must be prepared for sowing. In addition to checking seeds for germination, this process includes:

  • Disinfection them in a solution of potassium permanganate.
  • Hardening seeds in the refrigerator.
  • Treatment with growth stimulants.

Can fresh seeds be sown from a bag immediately, dry? Sure you may. In the right conditions, they will surely rise. Only they will be stretched to do this, which is very inconvenient for the gardener: after all, the seedlings must be urgently placed in a cool place, and for the next ones to appear, heat is needed. Dilemma…

Soaking and seed treatment

Branded, expensive seeds do not need to be disinfected, large trade organizations try to sell only healthy ones. But it will be safer to process them for 30 minutes with a dark solution of potassium permanganate, and then wash it well with plain water. In this case, some of the seeds, the most frail, will emerge. Do not think that they are completely useless, they are simply weaker than others. Therefore, if there are a lot of seeds, the floating ones can be thrown away. If you need to save money, it is worth planting the seeds separately: light and heavy will develop at different rates.

Since in our case it is supposed to grow eggplants in the open field, it is necessary to harden them. To do this, the seeds are first soaked (although, of course, they are already wet with us!). But you need to keep them for a few more hours in warm (thirty degrees) water until they swell, and then place them in a wet cloth and keep them alternately warm and refrigerated for 4–6 days at intervals of 10–12 hours.

How to speed up seed germination

Even soaked and hardened eggplant seeds sprout long and stretched out, so they can be helped further. Eggplant is one of those examples of vegetables, when growing, you should not neglect pre-sowing seed treatment with growth stimulants. It is necessary to treat swollen, but not yet hatched seeds with stimulants.

To do this, you can use, for example, Epin-Extra or Zircon strictly according to the instructions on the label. They contribute to an increase in germination, as well as the further development of seedlings. You can keep seeds in these preparations for a long time, even up to a day, but the standard time is 8-10 hours. There are quite a few similar preparations, for example, rather cheap succinic acid (0.2 g / l), but at home, for example, agave juice diluted 5-10 times with water works in a similar way.

Growth stimulants not only accelerate germination, but also increase plant resistance

In addition to these drugs, the infusion of wood ash contributes to the acceleration of seed germination. 4–5 tablespoons insist in 1 liter of water for 24 hours, then the seeds are kept in it for 6–8 hours. Even soaking the seeds just in snowy water speeds up their germination a little. Any of these influences accelerate the emergence of seedlings by 2–3 days, but, most importantly, reduce the elongation of germination of eggplant seeds.

Germinating seeds

After all the described procedures, some of the seeds will surely hatch, and their further germination is not necessary. Seeds prepared in this way are ready for sowing. But some gardeners are trying to wait for almost all the seeds to hatch, and plant them already with tails. There is not much sense in this, only sowing will be difficult: you must try not to break off these tails.

But those who like to tinker still germinate. The easiest way to do this is to put the prepared seeds back in a wet cloth, create greenhouse conditions for them (for example, wrap them in a plastic bag, and if there is, put them in a Petri dish) and put them in a warm place with a temperature of about 28 aboutC. The audit is carried out twice a day: the tails should not grow more than 6–8 mm, should not be given.

Sowing seeds for seedlings

Eggplant seedlings have to be planted at home: the greenhouse option is suitable only in the south of the country. Although, in the presence of a heated greenhouse, this can be done anywhere.

When to plant eggplants for seedlings

In the south of our country, work on growing seedlings begins in early February, or even earlier, and in the middle lane they do it even in winter. Eggplant seeds hatch tightly, and the seedlings grow slowly, so in mid-February it is necessary to prepare containers, soil mixture and seeds for planting in order to sow them no later than the beginning of March. If you didn’t have time to finish with the crops before mid-March, you don’t have to start, it will be safer to buy ready-made seedlings on the market in late spring.

Sowing technique

It is best to immediately sow the seeds in medium or even large peat pots, but more often the seeds are sown first in a common small box, and then they are planted in the pots. For growing a small number of bushes, it is easier to buy soil in the store. If the potting soil is prepared on its own, one of the best recipes is peat with good garden soil (1: 1) and the addition of 10% pure sand. A handful of wood ash and twenty grams of urea are added to a bucket of such a mixture.

You need to disinfect your soil: spill it with a warm light solution of potassium permanganate. This work should be done about 5-7 days before sowing the seeds. The sowing of the seeds itself is simple. They are quite large, you can easily take them one at a time with tweezers and put them in a box with soil. The easiest way is to spread the seeds in a 5 x 5 cm pattern, and then cover them with a small layer of potting soil. Immediately after sowing, the crops must be carefully watered with clean water and covered with foil.

Any convenient box can be chosen as a box

Until the first shoots appear, you need to maintain a temperature of 25-28 ° C, this is a week or a week and a half. Then the box must be placed on a cool, well-lit windowsill. Within 5-6 days, the temperature should not be allowed to rise above 16-18 aboutC, otherwise, instead of developing roots, the seedlings will quickly stretch upward, and the seedlings will be unusable. Then the temperature should be gradually raised to 23–25 ° С, at night - a little lower. Seedlings will need such warmth and bright light until they are planted in the garden.

Seedling care

Seedling care includes tracking temperature and light conditions, periodic moderate watering, a couple of dressings and, if sowing was carried out in a box, a timely pick. It is necessary to water only with warm water, without excess: in soggy soil, the seedlings quickly become ill with a black leg. Drying of the soil should not be allowed, as this leads to premature lignification of the stem and a sharp decrease in the amount of future harvest.

The first time the seedlings are fed one and a half weeks after the appearance of the first shoots, the second - two weeks after the pick. The easiest way is to use a ready-made seedling feed, you can use any complete mineral fertilizer according to the instructions for it.

If you have sown seeds in a common box, soon the seedlings will need to be cut into separate peat pots with the same soil composition. Eggplant seedlings grow unevenly, and picking has to be done selectively, as the seedlings acquire two true leaves. It is better to throw out the weakest immediately. And those who are ready for picking after good watering should try to dig them out of the box along with a lump of earth, without disturbing the roots.

Of all the available peat pots for eggplant seedlings, you should choose the largest

Pinching the roots when picking is undesirable. They can only be shortened slightly if the branches are too large to fit in a peat pot. The transplanted seedlings are well watered and harvested for several days in twilight, after which they are returned to normal conditions.

Hardening seedlings before planting

10-15 days before planting eggplant seedlings in open ground, they begin to harden it, gradually accustoming them to natural conditions. To do this, first reduce the intensity of watering, and then gradually take out the seedlings to the balcony. True, the first time you should not do this at temperatures below 16 aboutC and take out more than 1–2 hours. The time is gradually increased.

It is equally important to accustom the seedlings to the scorching sun, which must also be done gradually. First, sunbathing is arranged for 15–20 minutes, then more.

Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground

When planting seedlings in a garden bed, it should have at least 5-8 large bright leaves, a short thick stem and a height of 22-25 cm.

When to transplant seedlings into the ground

The specific dates for planting eggplant seedlings are determined not only by the climate of the region, but also by the nature of the current weather. The optimum air temperature at this time should be at least 20 aboutC. In most areas, it is unrealistic to wait for this, and you have to plant eggplants under temporary shelters. But in any case, the soil at a depth of 10–12 cm should be warmed up to at least 15 aboutFROM.

Estimated dates for planting eggplant seedlings in different regions:

  • in the south of Russia - April 25 - May 5;
  • in the middle lane and in Belarus - May 25 - June 5;
  • in the Ural region, in the North-West and in Siberia - June 10 - 15.

Seedlings are planted in the evening, when the sun is no longer baking, and even better if cloudy weather is predicted for the coming days.

What fertilizers to put in the hole when planting

If the bed has been well fertilized since autumn, in the spring, when loosening the bed, you can only scatter a little wood ash over the surface. But when planting seedlings, many gardeners also apply local fertilizers to each hole. There should not be many of them, since the holes are made small, the size of a pot. It is enough to add a handful of ash or a teaspoon of azofoska, and then thoroughly mix the fertilizers with the soil.

Almost all plants love ash, and eggplant is no exception.

Experienced gardeners put onion peels into the hole, which are collected all winter. Fertilizer can be called a stretch, but the husk helps well against various pests. By this time, the husk is dry, they take it as much as it can fit in the hand, rub it lightly and throw it into the planting hole.

Methods and schemes of planting eggplant, the distance between plantings

The traditional version of growing seedlings is in peat pots, so when planting it is not removed from the pot, it is buried entirely in the hole. The pots are produced with different wall thicknesses, it is advisable to use medium-sized ones for eggplants, but thick walls are normally soaked in well-watered soil, eggplant roots are able to break through them.

If the seedlings are grown in reusable pots with a retractable bottom, before planting, they must be watered more thoroughly, but no later than 5-6 hours before being removed from the pot, so that, by pushing out the bottom, you get in your hands a cube of soil with seedlings, and not crumbled earth ... All roots should be preserved as much as possible.

The most difficult thing is to remove the seedlings from the common box, if she has lived in it until the summer. Care is required here, since in the box, neighboring plants are intertwined with roots. Therefore, eggplants are strongly discouraged from growing in common containers.

Regardless of how and where the seedlings were grown, all the distances between the bushes in the open field will be the same. The planting scheme is determined by both the preferences of the owner and the variety of eggplant, and therefore the size of the future adult bush. Usually eggplants are planted in beds of standard width, so two rows are obtained with a distance of 50–70 cm. In rows between bushes, 35–45 cm are left, decreasing these values ​​only for the shortest varieties.

Eggplant bushes often grow quite strongly, so planting should not be cramped.

In addition to this scheme, a square-nested one is often used. In this case, the holes are dug in a checkerboard pattern, at distances of 60 cm both in the rows and between them. If there are a lot of seedlings, but there is not enough space, you can modernize this option by increasing the distances to 70 cm and planting two bushes in each nest, unless, of course, this is a very tall variety.

Planting depth

With depth, everything is simple. If the seedlings are of high quality, not elongated, they are planted with a minimum depth: 2-3 cm deeper than they grew at home. They do not need a slope, as in the case of tomatoes. If the seedlings are not very good, you can try and deepen, and even slightly tilt. But this technique does not help eggplants very much: if the deepened planting of tomatoes causes the growth of additional roots, they hardly appear in eggplants.

Features and rules for boarding

Planting eggplant seedlings is no more difficult than planting peppers or tomatoes, only it should be handled more carefully. In tomatoes, you can even break the stem: over time, new shoots and leaves will grow, although fruiting will be delayed. For eggplants, the loss of even one of the available 5-6 leaves will greatly weaken the seedlings. If it is assumed that the bushes will grow tall, and they will have to be tied up, it is better to stick the pegs next to the holes in advance, so as not to injure the growing roots later. The garter of the seedlings will most likely not be required immediately after disembarkation.

Wells with applied local fertilizers are pre-watered with warm water, depending on the condition of the soil, up to three liters may be required. It is more convenient to plant eggplants in the mud, but after planting and filling the voids with soil, watering should be repeated. The soil around the bushes must be mulched. Even in the south, in the evenings, the garden bed should first be covered with non-woven materials. Some gardeners do not remove them from the beds all summer, placing them on specially constructed supports, and only sometimes raise the shelter to ventilate the bushes.

Temporary shelter can be homemade, but it is mandatory in the first weeks.

The first 10-15 days after planting, eggplants hardly grow. At this time, you can periodically loosen the ground around the bushes. As growth resumes, they must be well watered with warm water, avoiding waterlogging of the soil. After the bushes reach a height of 30 cm, they pinch the tops, causing the growth of lateral shoots.

Video: planting seedlings in open ground

Planting eggplants in a seedless way

Is it possible to do without seedlings when growing eggplant? After all, how great it would be to immediately sow seeds in the garden! Alas, this is only possible in the south, and even then you will have to forget about getting early products. In the holes without shelter, it will be possible to sow seeds not earlier than May, which means that only early varieties should be selected. Sowing under temporary shelters in the south is possible in early April, if the soil has managed to warm up to at least 14 aboutFROM.

With this sowing, small holes are made in a bed prepared in the fall, in which 3-4 seeds are laid to a depth of about 2 cm. Excess seedlings are then removed, but sometimes two plants are left in the hole. In any case, the crops should initially be covered with a film, and when it can be removed depends on the specific weather.

What you can and what you can't plant next to eggplant

It is not difficult to find tables that indicate the best and worst neighbors for a particular garden or horticultural crop. Basically, the proximity of plants is logically explained. So, eggplants are not advised to be planted next to tomatoes or potatoes. They do not interfere with each other's growth, but they have a common enemy - the Colorado potato beetle. Having settled on potatoes, it will damage eggplants.

Eggplants are often planted along with peppers, almost alternating planting. Since they have almost the same growing conditions, this is quite logical. You just need to look at the height of adult plants so that tall varieties of eggplant do not shade pepper bushes, which also require sunlight.

Peas and beans are considered good neighbors for blue ones, but here you also need to pay attention to the height of the plants in terms of possible shading. Eggplants coexist well with any types of cabbage. And such popular flowers as marigolds and nasturtium, drive away many pests from eggplants with their smells.

Precursors to eggplant when planting

With unwanted eggplant predecessors, everything is simple: they cannot be planted after any nightshade crops (potatoes, tomatoes). For the rest, they are not picky about their predecessors, it is only important that the previous residents in the garden do not eat all the nutrients cleanly and do not clog the soil with their seeds and potential pests.

It is believed that eggplant grows best after peas, cucumbers, parsley, carrots and any salad crops.

Possible landing problems

It is not very easy to grow eggplant seedlings, but adult plants, after they take root in the garden, do not cause big problems to the gardener. And seedlings can only cause difficulties in the early stages.

Eggplants do not sprout

The reasons why the sown seeds do not germinate are varied, but you should worry not earlier than half a month after sowing properly prepared seeds. Some of the reasons are as follows.

  • Bad seeds, with an expired shelf life, therefore it is advised to check them for germination in advance.
  • Using seeds that have been treated before sale: some modern techniques increase yields, but delay germination; you need to wait a little longer.
  • Planting the seeds too deep: if sown deeper than 3 cm, the prepared seeds can rot.
  • The seeds are cold: at temperatures below 20 aboutWith they can rise for a very long time, or even disappear altogether.
  • Incorrectly created soil moisture: in overdried soil, seeds can dry out, and in soggy soil, they can rot.

Seedlings stretched out

Pulling seedlings is a common problem, but the reasons are clear. This happens at first after germination, when the temperature needs to be lowered and light added. But if the seeds are sown in a common box, it is difficult for the gardener to make a choice: the first shoots have appeared, and the next can be expected for a long time. And for the first couple of days in the warmth, the most frisky specimens are pulled into a thread.

Such strings cannot be saved, you need to sow again

If they sowed immediately in separate pots, it is easier, only they need to be transferred to the cool. But the common box ... It will have to be exposed to conditions of low temperature when the first shoots are already at the limit, otherwise at a low temperature the next ones may not emerge. If the seedlings are still stretched out, you can first add a little soil. As a last resort, transplant elongated specimens to a new dwelling ahead of time, deeply deepening them.

Eggplant seedlings fall

Young seedlings can fall (disappear) for many reasons, but they all boil down to improper care or infection. It is unlikely that the seedlings were visited by pests, but if so, even good: getting rid of insects at home is easy, you just need to spray the remaining seedlings with any insecticide.

More often, unfortunately, seedlings fall due to diseases. If everything was in order with the soil, then the owner overdid it with watering. There are two main options: root rot or black leg. In the first case, you can save the remaining seedlings. It is necessary to remove the fallen ones, water the soil with a pink solution of potassium permanganate, expose to bright light and dry slightly. In the case of a black leg, you can try to do the same, and even sprinkle calcined chilled sand on the soil. But the likelihood that this will help is no longer very high.

There is, in fact, only one major obstacle to growing eggplants outdoors: it takes an extended period of summer heat. Otherwise, all agricultural technology is similar to that for most heat-loving plants. The biggest, but surmountable difficulties are encountered by the gardener at the beginning of growing seedlings and in the first time after planting it in the garden.

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Data on the timing of germination and germination: after how many days do tomato seeds germinate?

To remove a rich harvest of tomatoes, you should show maximum foresight at the initial stage of working with seed material. Since tomato seeds should be planted prepared, for this a number of manipulations are carried out to improve their germination. Knowing how many days the tomato seeds sprout, you can expect the first shoots to appear. If the seeds do not hatch for a long time, it is necessary to urgently sound the alarm and take measures to correct the situation so as not to be left without a tomato harvest this season. And what to do to make tomato seeds sprout faster, then it will become known.

Preparing for planting eggplant seeds

To grow eggplants at home, the main thing is to observe several conditions: plant seedlings of vegetables only in fertile soil, water with warm settled water and feed the plants with mineral fertilizers and organic matter. If you want to get a high yield of eggplants, purchase high-quality seeds, this is the only way to get good and healthy seedlings and, in the future, developed plants.

Effective pre-plant seed treatments

Fresh eggplant seeds give good germination. After four years of storage, the germination of the seed is significantly reduced. If there are old vegetable seeds and it is a pity to throw them away, it is recommended to check them for germination a couple of weeks before sowing and select the best ones. They are suitable for sowing, even if only 6 hatch out of 10.

Seeds can be disinfected in different ways. The most effortless and effective method is disinfection and subsequent soaking of seeds in growth stimulants.

We use potassium permanganate

We start by preparing a 1.5% solution of potassium permanganate, making sure that the solution is slightly pink. Then we soak the eggplant seeds in the prepared solution for 20 minutes. The entire procedure is performed at room temperature. At the end of which, the vegetable seeds should be washed in running water. The initial stage allows you to disinfect only the upper shell of the inoculum, but you cannot cope with the infection that is inside. Therefore, additional processing will be required.

Growth stimulants come into play

Next, we use "Epin", from which we prepare the solution. For half a glass of water, you only need 2 drops of the product. You need to soak the seeds at room temperature, not lower than + 20-22 degrees for 18 hours. After the disinfection has been carried out, they can be immediately sown into the ground or germinated.

Hot water

We heat the water to a temperature of 50 degrees, put the eggplant seeds in it for 25 minutes. After the time has elapsed, remove them and then cool by placing them in cold water for 2 minutes. During disinfection, it is necessary to maintain the temperature regime. If the water has cooled, you will need to add hot water to the container with seeds. The above method completely disinfects them and kills the infection, both inside and outside.

Fertilizer solutions

Then you need to prepare a 0.01% solution of potassium or sodium humate, place vegetable seeds in it and soak in this solution for a whole day. The preparation of the solution is carried out strictly in accordance with the instructions. It is necessary to soak eggplant seeds in a freshly prepared solution; you cannot cook it in advance. After the disinfection has been carried out, the seeds can be sown immediately in open ground or germinated, and then sown on seedlings.

Germinating eggplant seeds at home

In wet cloth

We germinate eggplant seeds in a damp cloth. To do this, we take cotton material: chintz, cotton, linen, from which small squares are cut. We lay out the seeds on the material, fold the fabric into a bag, moisten the resulting "bags" and put them on a plate. So that the material does not dry out, but is always wet, you will need to place a plate with bags in a plastic bag. Germination lasts up to 3 days.

The dish with seeds should not be placed on a radiator or placed near heating appliances. Otherwise, the drying process of the tissue bags will occur at an accelerated rate and the vegetable seeds will dry out. Such planting material will be unsuitable for sowing.

Soaking in biologics

To increase immunity and accelerate the germination process, before soaking, we treat the eggplant seeds with such preparations as "Baikal", "Novosil", "Ideal". Dilution of drugs is required in accordance with the instructions.

An ash solution is also used for soaking. To prepare it, you need to take 1 liter of hot water and dilute a couple of tbsp in it. l. ash.

Using aloe juice

Undiluted aloe juice is an effective and affordable way to soak your seeds. We tear off the lower leaves from a 2-year-old plant, place it for 5 hours on the lower shelf of the refrigerator, then squeeze the juice out of them. To squeeze out the juice, you can use a meat grinder, and then squeeze through cheesecloth. Soak the seeds in the resulting juice for a day.

How to deal with store seeds

Store-bought vegetable seeds do not need to be decontaminated. Large firms, for the most part, take care of their reputation, supplying seed only after preliminary treatment, so the eggplant seeds come to the buyer in a sterile form. Usually, on the back of the package, all information is given about the varietal characteristics and seed treatment against diseases and pests.

When to plant eggplant seeds for seedlings

The timing of planting our vegetables depends on the climatic conditions of the area. This is extremely important when growing eggplants through seedlings. Home conditions promote rapid seed germination. Usually, the first shoots can be expected only after 5 days - a week, and in some cases up to one and a half weeks. From germination to transplantation to a permanent place of cultivation, sometimes it takes up to 70 days, so sowing should be done in early February.

Interestingly, eggplant seedlings at two months of age produce a lower yield than seedlings at 70 days old. Therefore, based on the terrain conditions, it is possible to calculate the landing time.

Soil preparation rules

The soil for planting eggplant seeds should be nutritious, light, moisture-permeable and with neutral acidity. Garden soil can be used as soil, as long as it is nutritious. We add river sand and vermiculite to the soil. The finished soil must be loose.

Top dressing

Another option for nutritious soil is low-lying peat with coarse sand and compost, with proportions, respectively, 4/1/3. On a bucket of the prepared mixture, it would be very nice to add wood ash in the amount of 1 cup or superphosphate (3 box of matches). After adding, the mixture must be mixed well.

Soil disinfection

It is recommended to steam or disinfect "homemade" mixtures. If the soil is disinfected by heating in a water bath, in this case, it is impossible to immediately sow the seeds, only after 4-5 days.The soil can be disinfected by spilling with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. If you ignore these measures, young seedlings of vegetables can get sick with a black leg.

From the purchased mixtures we can recommend "Flora", "Gardener". One part of "Biohumus" and two parts of sawdust should be added to two parts of the purchased soil mixture.

Tanks for growing eggplant seedlings

The store offers a wide selection of containers for growing eggplant seedlings. You can buy peat cups, boxes, plastic cassettes, trays. Grow pots can be made at home with your own hands from scrap materials.

Rules for caring for peas in the open field

The agrotechnology of growing peas in the open field is very simple, without a doubt, even a novice summer resident and gardener can cope with the task. Proper care should include the following activities:

  • It is necessary immediately after sowing the peas to build nearby support structures plants. In the future, you do not need to tie peas to them, he will grab himself and begin to curl along the support. For example, you can drive pegs along the perimeter of the garden bed (preferably every meter) and pull the string. Alternatively, you can attach a special garden branch to the support posts, which is sold in many garden stores.

  • Seedlings will germinate in 7-14 days, depending on weather conditions, after that you need to immediately take cover (film or agrofiber).
  • At the very beginning of the emergence of seedlings, they should be protect from birds... For example, you can pull a fishing net over the support posts.
  • The most important care element is watering... After all, peas are a moisture-loving culture. On average, you need to water once every 5-7 days, but in dry weather, this should be done more often and more abundantly. Regular watering is especially important during flowering and during the setting of the first fruits.
  • Useful loosening the soil in the aisles in the garden bed. It is necessary to loosen the soil after watering, after 3-4 hours, when the water is completely absorbed. The procedure will improve the oxygen supply to the roots.
  • Also recommended mulch the garden (peat, rotted sawdust). The mulch will retain moisture, so you can water less frequently. The care procedure is especially relevant if you do not have the opportunity to water the peas in a timely manner.
  • It is necessary in a timely manner remove weedsif it starts to grow around the plants.
  • Getting a crop with larger, softer and sweeter peas will help the correct top dressing. At the beginning of flowering, the plants should be fed with a solution of wood ash, the fertilizer is rich in potassium. To do this, dilute 200 grams of wood ash in 10 liters of water.

Protecting peas from pests

The most dangerous pest of this culture is pea moth. Butterflies fly out of the cocoon just during the flowering period of peas, they lay their eggs on leaves, flowers, stems or beans, which soon turn into small caterpillars. These same caterpillars get inside the peas, eat them from the inside, and eventually spoil the crop.

You can protect peas from the pea moth with folk remedies (they also protect against pea aphids). One of the most effective - infusion of tomato tops, it is effective because of the poisonous substance solanine, which is just in the plant. To do this, you need to grind 3 kilograms of leaves and shoots of tomatoes, mix with 10 liters of water. Steep the mixture for about four hours, and then put the mixture in a saucepan over low heat for 30 minutes. Then strain the solution and mix with water in a ratio of 1 to 4. Spray the plants with this solution, but only in cloudy weather or in the evening when the sun is not active.

You can also spray garlic infusion... Crush 20 grams of garlic with a garlic press, pour 10 liters of water, leave for 24 hours. Then strain and spray with the plant solution.

This method is more effective than soaking and germination, and it is carried out one to two weeks before sowing. Take a tall dish, fill it two-thirds with water (+20. + 22 ° C), lower the tip of the aquarium compressor to the bottom. When bubbles appear in the water, dip the seeds into it. Make sure the air is evenly distributed. After 24–36 hours, remove the seeds and dry (not in the sun).

It can be done in two ways. First, after disinfection, soak the pepper seeds in warm water, and when they swell, put them in a cold place (temperature - 1-2 ° C) for 24-36 hours. Then dry. The task can be somewhat complicated: for 10-12 days, expose the swollen seeds to the action of variable temperatures - keep at 20-24 ° C for 12 hours, and at 2-6 ° C for 12 hours. Whichever method you choose, remember that you cannot delay hardening - the sprouts can outgrow.

Watch the video: Grow Tomatoes NOT Foliage or Leaves Part 2 Of Tomato Growing Tips