The use of potash fertilizers (part 3)

The use of potash fertilizers (part 3)

Riddles of potash fertilizers

The effect of potash fertilizers on different soils

All agricultural crops are in great need of potash fertilizers on peaty, sandy and sandy loam soils. Only peatlands, floodplains and meadows sometimes receive only potash fertilizers, where they pay off well.

On all types of soils, the need of plants for potassium is largely covered by the application of manure, therefore, the further in the rotation of a crop rotation a given crop is placed from manure, the higher the increase in yield from potash fertilizers.

Interaction of potassium with soil

Industrial potash fertilizers, being readily soluble in water, quickly interact with the soil. The K + cation is strongly adsorbed by its colloidal part. This prevents a noticeable movement of potassium in the soil and its leaching. It usually does not sink deeper than 4-6 cm from the place of application; with surface application, the largest amount of it is retained already in the upper, two-centimeter soil layer. It follows from this that potash fertilizers are best applied to the root layer of the soil to a depth of 10-18 cm, i.e. in the spring for digging.

Thus, on heavy and medium soils, deep plowing of potash fertilizers is required, since under these conditions potassium is less fixed in a non-exchangeable form. On light soils, in an area with an increased amount of precipitation, potash fertilizers can also be applied under the cultivator (in a layer of 8-15 cm).

Entering into the absorbing complex of the soil, potassium displaces into the solution an equivalent amount of other cations, primarily calcium, which is the most in the exchangeable state in soils. In acidic soils, in exchange for potassium ions, the soil solution is enriched with hydrogen, aluminum and manganese ions, which adversely affect beets, cabbage, as well as many beneficial bacteria - nitrifying, nodule and free-living. Therefore, on acidic soils, the systematic application of potassium salts should be accompanied by the introduction of a neutralizing lime additive (the same amount of dolomite flour or other lime fertilizer is added to 1 part of the potassium fertilizer).

After liming the soil, the content of assimilable potassium in the soil increases, here the calcium of lime displaces a lot of potassium from the absorbed state into the soil solution, increasing the assimilability.

The role of impurities in potash fertilizers

The inevitable companion of potassium in fertilizers is chlorine, sodium, magnesium and sulfate ion. All the ions that make up the fertilizer are essential for plant nutrition. A lot of chlorine contains sylvinite, carnallite, cainite. Excess chlorine for some crops (potatoes, etc.) is sometimes harmful. But it cannot be assumed that the chlorine ions completely belong to the ballast. Recent physiological experiments suggest that small amounts of chlorine are also needed for nutrition and metabolism in the plant organism, although its functions are still not fully understood. But if chlorine ions are completely excluded from the nutrient solution, then all plants begin to develop weaker. It is contained not only in potash fertilizers, but also in manure, phosphate rock, superphosphate and other mineral fertilizers, and also enters the soil and leaves from the atmosphere with precipitation.

The mobility of soil cations increases with the addition of chloride salts, since none of them with the chlorine anion gives insoluble salts. This is the reason for the leaching of increased amounts of calcium and magnesium from the soil when potash fertilizers rich in chlorine are embedded in it.

Although sodium is not a part of the elements necessary for all plants, it is nevertheless found in all agricultural crops. It has been established that many plants respond positively to the introduction of sodium into the nutrient medium. This primarily applies to beets, cruciferous vegetables, carrots and some cereals.

The magnesium content in potash fertilizers is very beneficial. When physiologically acidic ammonium fertilizers are applied, a lot of magnesium is leached from the absorbing soil complex. Such losses of magnesium are very noticeable on light soils, their fertility for magnesium decreases. The introduction of potassium-magnesian salts makes up for the losses, especially on sandy loam. Therefore, magnesium-containing fertilizers have a better effect than potash fertilizers that do not contain magnesium. Trace minerals in unrefined potassium salts are also beneficial in improving plant growth and development in many soils.

The less potassium available to agricultural plants is contained in the soil, the larger doses of potash fertilizers need to be applied to obtain high yields.

Table beets and other root vegetables in the first year of life, they absorb potassium throughout the growing season, but especially a lot in the second half of the growing season, when carbohydrates are intensively accumulated. At this time, with a weak potassium diet, protein synthesis is delayed, the accumulation of soluble non-protein nitrogenous substances in the root increases, which worsens the quality of the crop, especially sugar beet. Potassium starvation (as well as an excess of nitrogen) accelerates the appearance of flowering stems in the first year of life of a beet plant, sharply reduces the yield and sugar content of root crops. Beets respond better to the addition of potassium salts containing sodium chloride. However, on light soils, potassium magnesium acts better than all other fertilizers. Dose K2About 10-12 g / m² is applied in the spring for digging the soil.

Potatoes - a typical "potash" plant. Potato tubers' ash contains 44 to 74% potassium, which is almost one and a half times more than potassium chloride - the most concentrated fertilizer. During July, potatoes receive 60% of the total amount of potassium in the crop. Therefore, 12-15 g / m2 K is applied under the potatoes.2About the spring for digging, regardless of whether manure was introduced or not. This is done in order to ensure optimal nutrition for the potatoes during July and during the ripening of the crop. The best forms of potassium fertilizers are sulfate forms and contain magnesium (potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium, etc.), since potatoes cannot tolerate excess chlorine.

Vegetables are also high in potassium intake and respond well to it. Potash fertilizers (potassium chloride and other chlorine-containing fertilizers) have a positive effect on tomatoes, cabbage (12-20 g / m2 K2About digging). Potassium increases the sugar content of vegetable crops and reduces their morbidity during long-term storage in winter.

Onions, cucumbers and carrots suffer from an increased concentration of soil solution, therefore, only concentrated potassium fertilizers (potassium sulfate) are applied under them for digging the soil in the spring (8-10 g / m2 K2ABOUT).

Fruit and berry crops are distinguished by high responsiveness to potassium fertilization. Under the influence of potash fertilizers, the percentage of flowering branches in the apple tree increases, the marketable part (large fruits and lighter ones), the number of fruits in the harvest increases, the cold resistance and frost resistance of crops increase. Fertilizers are best applied at the end of April for digging row spacings, excluding near-trunk circles and protective zones near plants.

That's all. Make friends with potash fertilizers. I wish you success.

G. Vasyaev,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Photo by N. Denisova

Signs of an overdose of potash fertilizers

Excessive nutrition of the plant is fraught with negative consequences as well as insufficient feeding. An excess of potassium leads to disruption of vegetation processes. Plant growth slows down, young leaves become smaller. The photo shows a strawberry bush, which was fed uncontrollably with potassium, periodically pouring ash from the stove on it.

Excess potassium led to strawberry disease

Excess potassium prevents nitrogen from entering the plant. Leaves brighten, internodes lengthen. If you do not take measures in time to save the dying bush, its leaves will begin to die off.

Recommendation: it is necessary to spill the soil once with a large amount of water (12–15 liters per 1 sq. M.) In order to flush the excess potassium from the surface layers. If possible, it is advisable to transplant the plants to another place after spilling.

Strawberries will gratefully respond to taking care of them. The article lists various feeding options that will help you choose the best method for your conditions. It is advisable to try all types of fertilizers and, depending on the result, make your final choice. The main thing is not to overdo it. It is better to apply fertilizer in a weaker concentration than to overfeed and thereby destroy the plant.

Nitrogen-potash mineral fertilizers

Nitrogen-potassium mineral fertilizers are used by modern gardeners and gardeners almost everywhere, as they are one of the most effective inorganic dressings. Convenience of storage, ease of application and balanced composition make this type of fertilizer in demand in relation to any crop.

Place of nitrogen-potash fertilizers in the general classification

Mineral fertilizers
Simple fertilizersComplex fertilizers - based on a combination of three elements:
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

Mineral fertilizers - auxiliary substances of inorganic origin used to increase the yield / flowering of cultivated plants. In view of the efficiency, the widest spectrum of action and the least costly transportation, they are actively used both in agriculture and in the areas of amateur gardeners.

Structure simple mineral fertilizers is based on one element, so their action has a clear focus. Allocate nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers.

Complex fertilizers, depending on the proportions of the components used, have a complete set of nutrients required by the plant organism in a particular period of development. In other words, complex fertilizers contain all three simple elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) at once. Hence the name: nitrogen-potash fertilizers or nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium: the role of macronutrients in plant life

Nitrogen - the basis of a plant cell. It is a part of proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll. Responsible for healthy growth and the formation of new shoots / leaves. In this regard, the greatest need for the designated element falls on the spring.

Symptoms of nitrogen starvation:

  • yellowing of the leaf from the edge to the center
  • thinning of the sheet plate
  • folding of the lower leaves
  • slowdown and arrest of growth, weakening of flowering
  • loss of leaves, premature shedding of fruits.

Phosphorus - practically absent in the soil in a "free" form, that is, without additional application, most plants do not receive it in the required amount. Meanwhile, phosphorus plays an extremely important role in the life of a plant organism: it is responsible for the formation of the cell nucleus, metabolic processes, reproduction and division, respiration and photosynthesis.

Symptoms of phosphorus starvation:

  • discoloration of the leaf (dark green, bluish, red-violet shades)
  • sheet reshaping
  • root degradation
  • slowdown in growth.

Potassium- a kind of "carrier" of nutrients from the root system to young shoots and leaves. Promotes the normal assimilation of most trace elements, is responsible for resistance to frost, drought and various diseases.

Potassium starvation symptoms:

  • change in leaf color (young ones become bluish-green, more mature ones turn yellow, turn brown)
  • change in the shape of the leaves (curl)
  • pallor of leaves
  • the appearance of stains, drying of the sheet edge
  • stopping growth.

Nitrogen-potash fertilizers: advantages

The main advantage of nitrogen-potassium fertilizers is their balance: the plant receives all three vital elements at once. No less significant can be called the "focus" of one or another complex fertilizer. On sale you can find:

  • seasonal nitrogen-potash fertilizers (autumn, spring, summer)
  • nitrogen-potash mineral fertilizers of narrow specialization (flower fertilizers, fertilizers for potatoes, fertilizers for needles, etc.)
  • universal nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

The composition of the listed dressings differs in the ratio of macronutrients, as well as in the presence of additional auxiliary substances.

In addition, there are many forms of release of complex fertilizers: granular, liquid, water-soluble. Thus, their use is a relatively simple process that even a novice gardener can handle.

Application of complex nitrogen-potash fertilizers

Nitrogen-potassium mineral fertilizers, depending on the season, require a certain type of application to the soil.

In the spring top dressing is embedded "for plowing", or directly into a freshly dug seedling / seed hole. The latter method is extremely laborious, but more economical in terms of substance consumption.

In summer fertilizer is applied during watering, respectively, it is better to use liquid or water-soluble forms.

the main goal autumn supplementation - restoration of soil balance after harvest. Fertilization is carried out according to the same principle as in the spring.

The most important aspect of the use of nitrogen-potassium fertilizers is the principle of "rational feeding", which excludes the ingress of excessive amounts of macronutrients into the soil. Accurate adherence to the application rates specified in the instructions allows you to get a high-quality and safe harvest!

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Potash fertilizers: what are there and how to use them

Whatever the adherents of organic farming think about mineral fertilizers, but their
the acquisition saved more lives than the chlorination of water, vaccines against tetanus, measles, malaria, smallpox, the discovery of penicillin and other scientific breakthroughs in medicine combined. Since the beginning of the last century, 2.7 billion people on the planet have not starved to death, because the amount of agricultural products produced has increased due to the use of mineral fertilizers (according to the Yara International ASA concern (Norway)). And especially - potash.

Plants need potassium

Nitrogen can be easily obtained from organics, a by-product of animal husbandry. But potassium in the ionic form in the soil is not enough, since it reacts too easily and binds with other elements. And so far, chemists have not been able to find a single organic compound containing potassium in a form easily assimilated by plants. And to provide cultivated plants with this paramount element, ash alone is indispensable.

Phosphoric Acid Anti-Rust Application

Phosphoric acid, whose effect on rust is widely known, can be used both commercially and for removing metal corrosion at home. Of course, such actions must be carried out taking into account the safety rules described above.

A clear advantage of phosphoric acid is that under the conditions of chemical cleaning from the metal surface with the help of phosphoric acid, it is possible not only to remove loose oxidized masses, but thereby create a small protective film on the surface of the metal product. The formation of such a film occurs as follows: iron oxide is corroded and absorbed by the acid; instead, the metal surface is phosphated. People who undergo a similar cleaning procedure testify that after removing rust through the use of orthophosphoric acid, an oily film of a gray tint is formed on the surface of a metal product.

At this stage, there are several main ways to combat the formation of oxides on metal surfaces:

  • Metal etching, involving its complete immersion in an acid solution,
  • Spraying the compound with a spray gun or applying it with a roller,
  • Mechanical cleaning of metal from oxides, followed by the use of acid.

The most suitable and effective method of cleaning metal from corrosion is selected in each specific case, taking into account the individual conditions in which the procedure is possible.

Agrochemical properties

MoeChevin is a highly concentrated, ballastless nitrogen fertilizer. In him contains 46.2% nitrogen in amide form, agronomically effective fertilizer... Differs in a number of valuable qualities:

  1. A high concentration of nitrogen is combined with a slight solubility in water, but the risk of leaching into the lower soil horizons is small.
  2. High mobility combined with slow degradability in the soil
  3. In terms of nitrogen content, urea (100 kg) is equivalent to sodium nitrate (300 kg) or ammonium sulfate (225 kg)
  4. Urea has significantly less acidifying effect than ammonium sulfate
  5. On acidic light soils (sandy loam and sandy), urea is noticeably better than ammonium nitrate
  6. The absence of Cl and SO4 has a beneficial effect on the rate of nitrification in the soil
  7. Considerable crop increases are provided on irrigated land
  8. Possesses favorable properties for foliar feeding.

Together with a beneficial effect, there are cases of weak impact:

The main reason is how urea is converted in the soil. When the medium is alkaline, ammonium carbamate decomposes rather quickly into CO2 and ammonia. In close contact with sprouts, the harmful effects of ammonia are observed. On alkaline soils, the negative impact is most pronounced. The most vulnerable plants are also affected. But if urea is introduced in advance, this adverse effect should be eliminated.

It is also important to introduce urea in advance, since biuret is formed during its granulation.that can harm plants. If the biuret content exceeds 3%, then the plants will be inhibited. By applying fertilizer 10-15 days before sowing, this problem is eliminated (biuret has time to decompose).

It is undesirable to apply urea when there are high fertilizer concentrations in direct contact with the seeds, since ammonia can have a harmful effect. Of course, it all depends on the characteristics of the plant's root system. With a developed system, fibrous, with adventitious roots, the harmful effect is not so noticeable. For example, a beet has only one root (tap root), and its dying off leads to the death of the entire plant.

However, studies have shown that when potash fertilizers are applied in close contact (not uniform distribution, but directly next to urea), the negative effect is eliminated, and the effectiveness of the fertilizers increases. The localization of the full fertilizer combination (NPK) near the sown seeds gives a noticeable advantage over the usual uniform distribution of fertilizers throughout the soil mass.

With a low value of the urease enzyme in the soil, which is extremely rare, urea gives low results. Then it is necessary to apply the appropriate organic fertilizers.

  • The acidifying effect on the soil is weaker than that of ammonium sulfate and other ballast ammonia fertilizers
  • On light acidic soils - an effective form of nitrogen for plants sensitive to high acidity
  • With a high concentration of fertilizer near the sown seeds, a sharp decrease in germination. Application of potash fertilizers in close contact eliminates the negative effect
  • Local application of urea together with the full combination of NPK gives better results than uniform distribution
  • With a low value of the urease enzyme in the soil, it is necessary to apply organic fertilizers.

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