Calceolaria

Calceolaria

Calceolaria is an elegant flowering plant that once belonged to the Norichnikov family, but recently separated into its own family. In nature, the flower can be found in the humid tropics of South America. In such conditions, the size of plants can reach 60 cm. Domestic calceolaria are much more compact: they usually do not exceed 30 cm in height.

Despite the fact that the calceolaria plant is perennial, it is usually grown at home as an annual. Most species can please with lush flowering only in the first years of life.

Description of calceolaria

Calceolaria can be a herb or a small shrub. The growth rates are very high. Within one season, it can turn into a full-fledged adult plant.

The flowers have an unusual shape of a two-lipped flower, reminiscent of a funny slipper with a front bent upwards. It is to them that the bush owes its name - it translates as "resembling a slipper". The largest lower lip always has bright colors, small specks and a ball shape. And the top one is so small that it is almost invisible.

The color of the flowers can be very varied and often combines several bright shades. Inflorescences can appear on the bush for several months, this period usually occurs in the summer. But to admire the smart shoes, you need to make an effort. Calceolaria is one of the most demanding plants to care for, and it can be difficult for novice growers to cope with it.

"Little shoes" decorate your garden. Growing calceolaria: from sowing seeds to flowering

Brief rules for growing calceolaria

The table shows brief rules for caring for calceolaria at home.

Lighting levelRequires bright lighting for short periods of time.
Content temperatureShouldn't be too high. During the day, no higher than 16-20 degrees, and at night - no more than 10-15 degrees at any time of the year.
Watering modeIt is better not to allow moderate moisture, overflow or overdrying of the soil.
Air humidityFor healthy plant development, high humidity is required.
The soilNutritious neutral soils that conduct air well are suitable.
Top dressingEvery decade, using a mineral composition for flowering species.
TransferTransplants are necessary only after purchase and in the process of picking seedlings.
BloomIt can bloom at home only in the first years of life.
Dormant periodThe dormant period begins after flowering.
ReproductionSeed, cuttings.
PestsSpider mites, aphids and whiteflies.
DiseasesVarious illnesses can manifest due to improper care.

Calceolaria can grow both indoors and outdoors.

Caring for calceolaria at home

It is important for calceolaria to provide proper home care. In an unfavorable microclimate, the flower will not be able to show itself in all its glory or even die.

Care after purchase

When purchasing a ready-made plant for home growing, the calceolaria bush should be immediately transplanted into a pot that is more suitable for it. With the right choice of capacity, the flower will not require further transplants.

Lighting

In direct sunlight, calceolaria flowers fade faster, and burns may remain on the leaves of the plant, but you cannot completely deprive the bush of light. Calceolaria needs sufficient lighting throughout the year, so you can move the plant to more suitable corners depending on the season.

To cause a second wave of flowering in the autumn or winter period, the bush will have to be artificially illuminated.

Temperature

The main difficulty in caring for calceolaria is maintaining the temperature required for the flower. Unlike most plants in its natural habitat, calceolaria appreciates small degrees. During the day, in a room with a flower, it should not be higher than 16-20 degrees, and at night - no more than 10-15 degrees. These indicators can vary only in the direction of greater coolness. In the heat, the flowering of calceolaria will not please with splendor, and its buds will quickly begin to fall off. In summer, the bush is recommended to be taken out into the fresh air, choosing a sheltered place for it.

Watering mode

The soil in the container should be slightly damp: water should not stagnate in it. Calceolaria should be watered carefully, trying not to wet the flowers of the plant. The sump method can be used, draining excess water later. Wet moss, expanded clay or peat can also be placed in the pallet.

For irrigation, filtered or settled, but always slightly warm water is used.

Humidity level

Another important condition for the healthy development of calceolaria is high humidity. But it will not work to humidify the air next to the plant with the usual spraying. Water droplets falling on delicate flowers can damage them. You can spray only the air next to the plant, creating a fog effect, or use humidifiers.

Capacity selection

The size of the calceolaria pot can vary depending on the degree of development of the plant. Shallow containers can be used to germinate seeds. As a rule, they are covered with a film or a lid to form an impromptu greenhouse. For seedlings, medium-sized cups up to 7 cm in diameter are used. After a month, these pots are replaced with larger ones (from 800 ml to 1.2 liters). In them, the bush will continue to grow. In this case, the material of the pot does not play a big role, but drainage holes must be present at its bottom.

The soil

For germination of seeds of calceolaria, light and loose soil is used. It can be versatile or homemade. To do this, mix peat with sand in a ratio of 7: 1. A little ash and crushed coal are added to the resulting mixture. Chalk or dolomite flour will also work. Any homemade substrate must be disinfected before planting by calcining it or treating it with potassium permanganate.

An adult calceolaria needs fertile soil. It can include humus, sod and peat. To loosen it, add a little sand to it.

Top dressing

The flower is fed every decade, combining the introduction of nutrient solutions with the irrigation procedure. For calceolaria, universal mineral formulations for flowering species are suitable. They are used at the indicated dosage.

An exception should be made only for recently transplanted bushes. They are not fed for a couple of weeks. Resting bushes should not be fed either.

Transfer

Indoor calceolaria is often grown as an annual. This is due to the fact that as the bushes grow, they begin to lose their decorative effect. After that, they are simply replaced with younger ones, so transplants are not required for such bushes.

Recently acquired plants, as well as growing seedlings or rooted cuttings, need to be moved to a new container. They are passed along with the soil clod, trying not to destroy it. Young calceolaria should be replanted in early spring, and adults after flowering, in autumn.

Bloom

The appearance of the flowers depends on the type and variety of calceolaria. As a rule, each flower has a corolla with a small, rounded upper lip and an impressive lower lip. It is the lower lip that creates the effect of a chubby shoe or a small ajar bag. There are several stamens inside the flower. Flowers are collected in inflorescences of several pieces and exude a pleasant aroma. Their sizes can be from 2 to 7 cm. The length of the peduncles can also vary.

Calceolaria bloom can occur from May to early autumn, but its duration and intensity directly depend on the care of the bush. This plant prefers coolness - it is in such conditions that it reaches its maximum decorative effect. On each bush, calceolaria can appear from 20 buds or more. After pollination, in place of the flowers, bolls appear filled with tiny seeds.

Dormant period

Calceolaria bushes begin to rest after flowering. At this time, they should be cut almost to the very bottom. A couple of months after this, planting should be carried out in the dark and cool. They should be watered much less often, but the complete drying of the earthen coma will be disastrous for the flower. As soon as fresh shoots begin to appear on the calceolaria, the plant should be returned to its usual place. It will start flowering again much earlier than the first wave, but the stems of the bush will be thinner and more elongated and lose their compact appearance faster.

Breeding methods for calceolaria

Growing from seeds

Reproduction of calceolaria by seeds takes a lot of time, it can take about 9 months to get a full-fledged plant. In this case, the sowing time directly depends on the desired flowering period. In order for the bush to bloom by spring, you need to sow seeds in June. The usual spring sowing will allow the seedlings to bloom only in the fall.

Small seeds of calceolaria are scattered over a damp, even substrate and lightly pressed to the ground. From above, they should be covered with a damp cloth to prevent drying out. At the same time, the container itself is covered with glass or foil to create greenhouse conditions. In the greenhouse, it should constantly be kept at about 20 degrees. The crops are periodically ventilated. The emerging seedlings will need several stages of picking. They should be repotted about 2 times before being moved to a permanent pot. At the same time, the seedlings are transferred to the final container only a couple of months after the previous pick.

Calceolaria. Shoots. // Valentina Zemskova

Propagation by cuttings

Calceolaria cuttings should be cut in early spring or late summer. Their rooting does not always occur, so the sections are treated with root formation stimulants. Prepared cuttings are planted in fertile light soil, placed in a bright place and covered with a jar or bag. The roots should appear in a couple of months. All this time it is necessary to maintain the humidity and temperature in the "greenhouse" at about 20 degrees. When the seedling begins to grow, the bag can be removed from it.

To get a more lush bush, you can plant several such cuttings in one pot at once.

Diseases and pests

Calceolaria reacts sharply to negative changes in conditions of detention. In order to prevent illness and death of the bush, you need to timely notice and correct all the problems associated with its cultivation.

  • High temperature has a bad effect on the decorative effect of calceolaria. If the room keeps above 20 degrees, and the air is not humid enough, the bush will begin to shed its buds and quickly lose its attractive appearance.
  • Inappropriate placement can also cause flowering problems. The bush should have enough light.
  • The bush can shed foliage during sudden changes in temperature.
  • Yellowing of the leaves in combination with a white bloom in the pot is a sign of excess calcium in the soil. The bush needs to be transplanted and watered with softer water.
  • Calceolaria's love for low temperatures requires especially careful adherence to the watering regime. Coolness combined with overflow, as well as moisture on the leaves or flowers of the plant, often leads to rot.

The main pests of calceolaria are spider mites, as well as aphids and whiteflies. In the event of their attack, the bush must be systematically treated with insecticides.

Types and varieties of calceolaria with photos and names

The genus Calceolaria is very extensive: it includes about 300 different species. All of them differ in the size and shape of the aerial part, as well as in the appearance of leaves and flowers. But not every type of calceolaria can be grown in an ordinary apartment. In home floriculture, the following types and varieties are best known:

Hybrid calceolaria (Calceolaria herbeohybrida)

The species includes varieties that have a similar bush shape. At the same time, their sizes can vary from 15 cm to 40 cm. Calceolaria herbeohybrida includes plants with bright monochromatic or variegated flowers. All of them are distinguished by their increased effectiveness during the flowering period. The foliage of hybrid calceolaria is rounded, light green in color and slightly pubescent. It is these plants that are usually used to decorate apartments: they are most adapted to pot growing. Among the main varieties:

  • Aida - with velvety, rich red flowers.
  • Dainty - forms bushes up to 15 cm tall. The leaves are large, the flowers are colored red.
  • Dervish - with yellow-brown flowers in a bright speck.
  • Golden rain is a mixture of varieties with brightly colored flowers.
  • Tigrovaya is one of the most elegant, but at the same time capricious varieties.

Calceolaria mexicana (Calceolaria mexicana)

The species forms a bush up to half a meter in height. Calceolaria mexicana has branchy shoots. Its flowers are large (up to 5 cm) and have a bright yellow color. Flowering differs in duration.

Calceolaria purpurea (Calceolaria purpurea)

The lower lip of the flowers of such a calceolaria has a more elongated shape than that of other varieties. Calceolaria purpurea is also notable for the unusual dark purple or lilac color of its inflorescences. The foliage of the plant has jagged edges, and from the inside is painted in a greenish-lilac color. At home, the species is grown only as an annual.

Calceolaria rugosa

Or whole-leafed. The size of the erect stems of this bush can be up to 50 cm. Calceolaria rugosa has small green leaves covered with wrinkles. During flowering, the species forms many inflorescences, which include medium-sized (up to 2.5 cm) flowers of a rich yellow color. They have a slightly corrugated surface and are decorated with red-brown specks. In the southern regions, the species can be grown in outdoor pots as a perennial or biennial wintering at home. Popular varieties include:

  • Goldbouquet - with larger golden flowers.
  • Sunset - forms red-orange flowers.

Calceolaria crenatiflora

The bush consists of flexible stems up to 60 cm long. They have short pubescence. Calceolaria crenatiflora produces two types of leaves. The former grow closer to the root and have long petioles. At the top of the stems, the leaf blades are almost devoid of them. Inflorescences-shields consist of yellow, shoe-like flowers, covered with reddish specks.

Cobweb calceolaria (Calceolaria arachnoidea)

The species is considered quite rare. Calceolaria arachnoidea is only 30 cm tall. During the flowering period, bright red flowers appear on it.


Calceolaria - planting and care at home

The houseplant calceolaria is an extensive genus of grasses, shrubs and shrubs native to Central and South America. The genus Calceolaria belongs to the norichnikovs, although British botanists distinguish it into a separate family. Calceolaria gained popularity in garden and potting culture thanks to speckled two-lipped flowers, similar to miniature elegant clogs. By the way, the plants got their sonorous name precisely for the unusual shape of the flowers (from the Greek calceolatus - slipper). You can look at the flowers of calceolaria endlessly: each of them has 2 lips - a spherical swollen lower and an almost imperceptible upper one. No less beautiful are the leaves of the mysterious American woman - folded bright green, pubescent from the inside. In April-May, up to 50 flowers-shoes of red, yellow, orange or white color, mottled with contrasting specks, bloom on calceolaria. A real shoe boutique for fairy gnomes, elves and fairies!


HOLMSKIOLDIA

The red color is well distinguished by birds, and the main pollinators of Kholmskioldia are sunbirds.

The plant is called "Chinese hat" - its flowers are so similar to a headdress. In indoor floriculture, blood-red Kholmskoldia is grown, in which the corolla and saucer-shaped calyx of the flower are painted in an intense red color, which is an important device for cross-pollination.

Shrub up to 1.5 m tall grows well in loggias and on light windows, blooms in the summer and autumn months.

Immediately after flowering, rejuvenating pruning is carried out, since Holmskioldia blooms on the shoots of the current year. At the same time, it is transplanted into light moisture-absorbing soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. In winter - a dormant period at + 14-16 degrees, and moderate watering.


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Reproduction of calceolaria

Calceolaria is propagated by seeds and cuttings.

Seed reproduction... When sown in March, the plants bloom in the fall, and when sown in June, the next spring. Further, the seeds can be sown until October for flowering in May.

The seeds of calceolaria are very small, dusty, they are mixed with talc, and then sown so that the seeding density is visible. Professional seeds are often sold in pellets.

Seeds are sown on the surface of the soil, not covering, but only pressing down. Crops moisturize well and maintain constant moisture, preventing them from drying out. Shade from sunlight. Germinated under glass at a temperature of + 20 ... + 22 ° C. Seedlings usually appear in 14-16 days. After the appearance of the first pair of leaves, the plants dive into pots with a diameter of 8 cm, and the temperature is lowered to + 18 ° C. With the formation of a rosette of leaves, a second pick is carried out into pots with a diameter of 10-12 cm, and further cultivation is carried out at + 14 ... + 18 ° C.

Seeds of calceolaria whole-leaved require slightly different temperature conditions for seed germination. They are germinated at + 15 ° C for 14-16 days, and the seedlings are kept at + 10 ... + 15 ° C.

From sowing seeds to flowering calceolaria, it takes 8-10 months.

Cuttings... Calceolaria can be propagated by cuttings left over from pruning. The cuttings are rooted in a greenhouse at a temperature of + 17 ° C.


Watch the video: Dahlias Tips u0026 Tricks. Pinching, Fertilizing, And Staking. Coast To Coast Home And Garden