Garlic is one of the most popular vegetable crops in the world, which is why a business based on its cultivation should bring a good income. In addition, such plants are characterized by unpretentiousness to care and good resistance to adverse weather conditions... These factors make it possible to grow spicy heads in all regions of the country. In this review, we will talk in detail how to plant and when to harvest garlic, how much planting material is needed and what is the yield per hectare.
What is the yield of garlic?
Garlic is grown all over the world. This spicy vegetable is used as an addition to many dishes. It is consumed fresh, marinated, salted, stewed and prepared according to many other recipes. Before you start growing this crop, you should familiarize yourself with its characteristics. Gardeners divide garlic varieties into two main groups:
- Spring - planted in early spring. These varieties produce small, dense heads with spicy but not overly sharp teeth. The shelf life of such fruits can be up to 12 months;
- Winter - planted in mid-autumn. The resulting crop is large in size, smooth and beautiful teeth with a rich pungent taste. The main disadvantage of this type will be a short shelf life of 3-4 months.
Productivity is at a fairly high level. Depending on the variety and growing conditions, one hundred square meters can be harvested from 100 to 500 kilograms, respectively, from 10 to 50 tons from one hectare.
Can you grow garlic for sale?
Growing garlic for sale is quite a profitable activity, because the price of this vegetable on the market always remains high, and the simplicity of performing agrotechnical work allows even a novice gardener to carry out them. The main difficulty will be finding sales channels, because the number of offers for the sale of these vegetables is extremely large.
For cultivation, you do not need to build greenhouses and other structures, all work is carried out in the open ground. This factor significantly reduces the initial budget. However, it is worth remembering that the harvest of spicy heads can be obtained only once a year, so you should take care of the storage conditions of vegetables in advance.
A business based on the cultivation of garlic is especially beneficial for people who own a land plot. But even if this is not available, you should not be upset, the soil can always be rented, depending on the region, such a service will cost from 5 to 80 thousand rubles per hectare for one season.
Renting land in the Moscow region and the Moscow region can cost much more than in the surrounding areas, so it is worth considering the location of the site in advance.
A garlic business can generate good income for a minimal upfront cost. Many sources recommend starting cultivation in small areas and gradually increasing the area planted.
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Garlic Business
Growing garlic for the purpose of further sale is considered a profitable business idea, because it often ends in success. Such a case has many advantages:
- Garlic is a very popular vegetable crop. which is always in demand, so there will always be sales channels, even if you have to try hard for this;
- The life of such a business can begin from an ordinary garden plot of 6 acres, it will be enough to get a stable and decent income;
- The garlic business doesn't require much start-up capital;
- Garlic is unpretentious culture, which can be grown on almost any soil;
- Compliance with simple rules for growing plants will help get a rich harvest;
- Received heads are stored long enough, therefore, if the distribution channels are properly organized and storage conditions are provided, profits can be made throughout the year.
But this business also has its drawbacks. Growing garlic in large areas will require the involvement of special equipment, the rental of which is quite expensive. We must not forget about natural factors, because a culture growing in open ground can die under the influence of an unfavorable climate.
Another disadvantage will be the impossibility of growing garlic on the same plot of land for more than 3 years in a row.
Where should you start a garlic business?
Garlic business start with the selection of a suitable land plot. Given that this crop grows well in the open field, building greenhouses will be unnecessary work that only brings additional costs.
In order to grow a rich harvest, it is enough to use a small summer cottage, several hundred square meters in size. At the first stage of business development, such an area will be sufficient. With the expansion of the site, both profit and processing complexity will increase, requiring additional costs, therefore you should first get regular customers who are ready to purchase products and only after that increase the sown area.
In the event that a novice businessman does not have a land plot in his ownership, he can be rented. Its price will depend on the region chosen, the quality of the soil, etc.
Planting and leaving
After the land plot is selected, you should take care of purchasing planting material. To grow garlic, use its cloves or one-cloves.obtained by cultivating garlic arrowheads. Experienced gardeners recommend paying attention to high-yield varieties that are regionalized for the growing region.
It is also worth deciding what kind of garlic will be grown for winter or spring. In the first case, the harvest will turn out to be larger and more beautiful, and in the second, it will be more mature.
Necessary equipment and workers
When growing this crop on a small plot of land, it can be planted and harvested manually, while for processing 1 hectare of soil, you will need special equipment... This includes a tractor with mounted technologies, suitable for sowing or a walk-behind tractor.
Renting a tractor together with a worker will cost at least 50-70 thousand rubles, while paying for such a service will have to be annually. The most economical option would be to purchase your own walk-behind tractor. Its price will depend on the configuration, manufacturer, engine type and many other characteristics. This indicator varies in the range of 20-80 thousand rubles.
You will also have to purchase garden tools, which include shovels, watering cans, rakes, pitchforks, hoes, etc.
When cultivated in large areas on an industrial scale, it will be very difficult to do without workers. It is best to hire them for seasonal work.
Planting in spring and autumn in open ground
The timing of planting garlic will depend on the type chosen:
- winter varieties planted in autumn - at the end of September-mid-October, 3-4 weeks before the first frost;
- spring - sown in open ground in April, when the ground warms up to 5-7 degrees.
When growing garlic, it is very important to choose the right place for planting:
- The plot must be open and sunny;
- It is not allowed to use lands on which melt water and precipitation accumulate... It is also worth making sure that the groundwater is at a deep level;
- It is not recommended to plant garlic where onions, carrots, cucumbers and tomatoes grew before it. Desired predecessors would be cabbage, legumes, pumpkin, zucchini, or greens.
To obtain a good harvest, it should be borne in mind that garlic prefers neutral loams. Regardless of the timing of planting, in early September, the soil is dug up, cleaned of weeds and debris, after which the following fertilizers are applied:
- 1 bucket of humus;
- 50-60 grams of superphosphate;
- 50-60 grams of ammonium nitrate.
Winter garlic is placed in furrows spaced 25-30 centimeters apart. The distance between the prongs will be 12-15 centimeters. The planting material is buried 15-20 centimeters, this is necessary so that the cloves do not freeze during the winter. Immediately after the planting work, they are mulched with a 7-centimeter layer of peat or sawdust. If the winters in the regions are frosty, but with little snow, it is recommended to additionally use spruce branches or agrofibre.
Regardless of the type chosen, the teeth should be deepened strictly vertically.
Spring garlic is placed much denser, the distance between the furrows will be 15-20 centimeters, and between individual plants 7-10 centimeters. The teeth are buried 6-8 centimeters.
To get a rich harvest that will be easy to sell in mono, you need to properly care for the plantings and adhere to several basic rules:
- Garlic beds are needed regularly to clear weeds and loosen;
- Watering is carried out moderate, during the growing season and the formation of bulbs, the soil should always be moist. Watering of plantings should be stopped 2-3 weeks before harvest;
- After each watering, it is recommended to mulch the soil;
- To form larger heads it is necessary pinch off the arrows, more than 15-20 centimeters long;
- Also plants need feeding. In the spring, after the first leaves appear, the garlic is fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers, such as urea. After 15-20 days, complex mineral fertilizers are applied. When 5-6 leaves appear on the garlic, it is fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Growing garlic is quite easy, but at the same time a painstaking and laborious process. Adhering to all the rules for planting and caring for plants, a rich harvest will be guaranteed.
The collection of spicy heads of garlic is most often done by hand, for this they are dug out with a pitchfork or pulled out by the aerial part. The timing of the harvest will depend on the climate. Usually, both in Russia and in Ukraine, winter garlic is harvested in early August, and spring garlic in early September. The most accurate determination of the ripeness of the crop can be by the arrows, which begin to turn yellow and fall on the ground.
In order to preserve the harvest as long as possible, it is recommended to perform the following actions:
- Initially, the heads are cleaned of soil and leave to dry for 20 days at a temperature of 25-30 degrees;
- Then it is necessary cut roots and leaves, the neck is shortened to a length equal to 2-5 centimeters.
The harvest of garlic is stored in a dry and cool room, the humidity of the air in which should be in the range of 60-80 percent.
How to sell products
Selling garlic is a very important step, because the success of the business you start will depend on it. There are several options for marketing the resulting crop:
- Retail sale at our own point. This option is the most expensive, but at the same time the most costly, because you will have to rent a retail outlet and hire an employee;
- Wholesale to various bases, large chain stores, for various industries, etc .;
- You can also garlic sell to restaurants and other establishments Catering.
Selling garlic is quite difficult, because the market is saturated with such offers, but if you find a regular customer and produce quality products, you don't have to worry about this issue.
What is the profitability of a business from 1 hundred square meters and 1 hectare
Calculation of profitability (income and expenses received) will be produced depending on the size of the cultivated area, the income received is calculated in the same way.
|1 are||1 ha|
|Paperwork||10,000 RUB||10,000 RUB|
|Land lease||50 p.||5,000 RUB|
|Acquisition of planting material (cloves)||3 750 RUB||375,000 RUB|
|Fertilizer and utilities costs||150 p.||15,000 RUB|
|Equipment rental||—||75,000 RUB|
|Buying inventory||30,000 RUB||30,000 RUB|
|Staff salaries||—||40,000 RUB|
|Total||43,950 RUB||550,000 RUB|
Depending on the selected variety, about 10 to 50 tons of harvest can be obtained from one hectare.given that 1 kilogram can be sold for 110 rubles, the minimum income will be 1.1 million rubles. With the best outcome, this amount can increase by 5 times.
Based on all the calculations presented above, we can come to the conclusion that a business can fully pay for itself already for 1 year of existence.
Before starting a garlic business, you need to draw up a competent business plan, which will indicate all the important details:
- First of all, it is necessary describe the cultivated variety, its taste, yield and other characteristics;
- The second important point will be a description of the cultivated areas;
- The business plan must include a production plan, which will include description of the planting process and care technology for plants;
- You also need to specify guaranteed distribution channels, with whom an agreement has already been concluded;
- The last and most important part of the business plan will be calculation of expenses and estimated income.
Growing garlic for sale is a painstaking but very interesting and profitable process. With the right choice of the variety and obtaining a beautiful and tasty harvest, the business can pay off and generate net income in the first year after landing.
Growing garlic as a business for small plots of land
The cultivation of garlic attracts with its yield ratio and wholesale cost. Its purchase price starts from $ 1.3, and the yield reaches up to 13 tons / ha.
In pursuit of financial independence and freedom from an employer, for many today it is becoming more and more attractive to create their own business. At the same time, often such start-up entrepreneurs do not have large amounts of initial investment. That is why one of the important criteria for starting your own business is the minimum need for initial investment.
Growing garlic as a business with minimal investment is exactly the option for starting a business that does not require specialized investments and has a high profitability. To obtain a high result and make a profit, you need to know the cultivation technology and understand the nuances of this business.
Nowadays, breeders have managed to breed many excellent varieties of garlic. Among them, you can choose three for growing on your own personal plot. These are non-shooting winter crops, non-shooting winter crops and non-shooting spring varieties known to experienced gardeners. As for their characteristic features, winter crops ripen early, have large heads and teeth, and have good yields. But they are not able to be stored for too long. Used for the preparation of various dishes and preservation.
Winter varieties include such as Yubileiny Gribovsky, Komsomolets, Boguslavsky, Gulliver, Petrovsky and others. Spring varieties require special storage conditions and can be stored for a long time. Popular types for planting in open ground are Yelenovsky, Ershovsky, Degtyarsky, Gafuriysky, Ukrainian white.
Shooting varieties of winter garlic, which tend to form a bulb with 2 - 6 large teeth, and non-shooting, which form a multi-pronged bulb, are recommended to be planted on the site 35 - 45 days before frost. This time falls on the second half of September - early October. Before planting, large and medium-sized bulbs are selected, divided into prongs, weighing no more than 6 grams. Bulbs that have 2 to 3 prongs are not used. It is advised to update the planting material every 3 to 4 years.
The recommended timing for planting spring garlic is early spring. You can plan planting for the first days of sowing, but no later than the first ten days of April.
Spring bulbs are often multi-toothed bulbs. It is better not to choose teeth that are medium in size for planting.
Spring varieties are planted in the ground on April 20-25. Their teeth are much smaller than those of winter crops. When planting, you do not need to press the teeth into the ground too much, since you compact the soil strongly, and the growth of the roots will be delayed. It is enough to make a furrow of the required depth and spread the seed in it at a certain distance.
After sprouting, crops need to be fed with mineral fertilizer. To do this, prepare a special solution of 10 liters of water, 1 tbsp. tablespoons of urea and 1 cup of mullein. For 1 sq. meter consume 3 liters of the resulting solution. After 10 days, feeding is repeated. In the future, the care and cultivation of winter garlic and spring crops is reduced to weeding and loosening the soil. Until the end of May, the soil must be kept moist. The area should be watered 5-6 times a day.
When the bulbs begin to form, a phosphorus-potassium dressing is added. To do this, dilute 1 tbsp in 10 liters of water. a spoonful of potassium sulfate and 2 tbsp. tablespoons of double superphosphate. For 1 sq. meter should be made 5 liters of solution. After 10 days, the procedure is repeated. In addition, the crops are sprinkled with wood ash - 1 glass per 1 sq. meter. To keep the heads large, the arrows must be removed regularly.
Planting garlic outdoors
Planting winter and spring garlic has some differences. We will reveal them in detail.
Site selection and preparation of the garden
In any case, garlic needs good lighting and ventilation. Therefore, the place for it is chosen open, flat, dry, without flooding.
For growing garlic, choose an even, sunny place without flooding.
On waterlogged soil, garlic gets wet and rots. To prevent this, it is often planted in high beds - this is especially true for winter garlic. The best soils are loam and sandy loam with neutral acidity. And also it is necessary to follow the principles of crop rotation. It is not worth planting garlic for 3-4 years after crops such as:
- any kind of onion
Garlic will feel good after such crops:
- any grains (excluding barley and oats)
- strawberries and strawberries.
The garden bed should be prepared no later than 3-4 weeks before planting, and for spring garlic it is better to prepare it in the fall. In this case, the soil should be dug deeply and at the same time fertilized:
- compost or humus at a rate of 5-10 kg / m 2
- superphosphate - 40 g / m 2
- wood ash - 1-2 l / m 2.
As with any other crop, planting dates depend on the growing region, or rather, on the climatic conditions of a particular region. When choosing the optimal planting date for winter garlic, you should know that it is important for it to have time to take root before the first frost begins. Winter-hardy varieties can withstand frosts down to -25 ° C, but if the garlic has not had time to take root well, then it will freeze out already at -10 ° C. Therefore, it is believed that the timing of planting should be chosen 3-4 weeks before the appearance of stable frosts, and it is better to plant earlier than later. If the garlic even manages to climb 2-3 centimeters, forming 1-2 leaves, then it's not scary. Experts believe that it is optimal to plant winter garlic when the soil temperature is 10-12 ° C.
Spring garlic does not like dry weather and dry land when planting. Therefore, it is better to plant it as soon as the snow melts and the soil warms up to + 5-7 ° C. Return frosts will not interfere with the development of the vegetable, since it has good frost resistance. If you are late with planting, the yield will decrease, since the formation of roots and leaves of garlic actively occurs at a temperature of 4-10 ° C, and at a higher temperature, growth is greatly slowed down.
Planting winter garlic
This process is absolutely uncomplicated and it looks like this:
- Planting material is prepared immediately before planting. For this:
- The heads are disassembled into separate teeth and calibrated. The largest are chosen for planting, and the small ones are left for eating. In this case, the rule applies: the larger the clove, the larger the bulb will grow from it. And vice versa.
The largest teeth are chosen for planting.
Before planting the chives, I disinfect them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate
Usually, garlic is planted in long beds of three rows at intervals of 25 centimeters.
With the onset of frosts, the garden with winter garlic is covered with straw
Planting garlic bulbs
A bed for planting bulbs is prepared in the same way as for cloves. The size of the bulbs should be at least 4-5 millimeters, or even larger. Air bulbs can be planted in late autumn at such a time that they do not have time to germinate before the onset of frost. This should happen in early spring. And you can also save the bulbs until spring in a canvas bag at room temperature and plant them on the beds at the same time as the cloves. In this case, the bulbs are placed in a refrigerator for quenching 30-40 days before planting. The sowing interval should be 3-4 centimeters, and the planting depth should be 2-3 centimeters.
For sowing, use bulbs with a diameter of at least 4-5 mm
Planting spring garlic
Spring garlic, in contrast to winter garlic, forms many (up to 15-30) cloves growing in 2-3 layers. For planting, only the largest cloves from the outer layer are used, and the rest are either used for food or sown with other crops to repel pests. Since spring garlic is planted in spring, its planting depth should be less than that of winter garlic. After all, it does not need to be protected from frost and it needs to create conditions for faster germination. Therefore, the grooves for its landing are made 4-5 centimeters deep. The planting interval in a row is also small - about 6-7 centimeters, since spring garlic cloves are much smaller. To speed up the emergence of seedlings, you can germinate the teeth by wrapping them in a damp cloth for several days.
The rules for caring for garlic during cultivation are the same for both of its types. They are simple and consist in performing the usual procedures for garden crops.
In the spring after germination, garlic needs regular watering. Their frequency depends on the specific weather conditions of the current season. It is important to maintain constant soil moisture to a depth of 40 centimeters, preventing it from drying out. Provided that the beds are mulched, 1-2 waterings per week are usually sufficient. Zand 4-5 weeks before the expected harvest, watering is stopped. It is convenient to water using drip irrigation systems.
Garlic will need top dressing in the spring during the period of vegetative mass gain. Usually, after 2-3 weeks, watering the beds with a solution of urea (20-30 grams per bucket) is used, using 10 l / m 2. Then it is advisable to feed the garlic with liquid organic fertilizers twice with an interval of 2-3 weeks. It is best to use chicken manure, dissolving it in water (proportion 1: 10), and in its absence, you can use mullein (2: 10). Like watering, feeding is stopped 4-5 weeks before the harvest ripens.
It is better to feed garlic with liquid organic fertilizers.
Garlic is generally resistant to most diseases and pests. It is often used to combat these problems in other plants. But still, sometimes (usually with any violations of agricultural technology), he himself is exposed to fungal diseases such as rot, rust, mold, downy mildew. For the prevention and control of them, it is better to use biological preparations (biofungicides), for example, Fitosporin or Trichodermin. Fitosporin is more effective as a prophylactic agent, it is used for treatments at intervals of 2-3 weeks throughout the season. In addition, it is also an excellent foliar feeding, absolutely harmless to humans. Trichodermin works well against root rot and other fungi. It can be used when signs of illness are detected.
The best known pests of garlic are onion fly, onion moth and stem nematoma. Less commonly, garlic is attacked by weevils and mites. As for flying insects (fly, moth), it is best to use repellent treatments with infusions of tobacco, ash or a solution of 1 tablespoon of kerosene in a bucket of water during their flight. Of the chemical means of protection, the following insecticides can be recommended:
- Fitoverm and others.
Stem nematoma is a parasitic form of helminths (worms) that live in the soil and penetrate the garlic through the bottom. The fight against this pest is difficult and it is better to apply preventive measures. If there is a risk of nematoma infection on the site (or the disease was noticed earlier), then soil treatment should be carried out before planting.
Table: preparations for soil treatment against nematoma
|A drug||Dosage||Processing time|
|Vidat||1-2 g per well||When landing|
|Peracetic acid||5 l / m 2||Early autumn|
|Formalin||Concentration 1: 25, flow rate 5 l / m 2|
|Tiazon||250 g / m2 mixed with sand 1: 3||Mid september|
|Carbation||200 ml / m 2||End of August|
Harvesting and storage
Winter garlic usually ripens by mid-July, and spring garlic by late August - early September. The readiness for cleaning is determined by the presence of some signs. If the garlic is arrow-headed, then the signal to start harvesting it is the opening of the seed capsule. The second sign is yellowing of the lower leaves and stem. If this happens, then it is not worth delaying the beginning of the excavation of the crop. Overripe garlic bulbs will decay and store poorly. At the same time, unripe garlic dug out early will be soft and unsuitable for storage.
The yellowing of the leaves and lower parts of the stalk of the garlic indicates its readiness for harvest.
The bulbs are dug in dry weather and laid out along the beds for 2-3 days to dry. If there is a risk that it may rain, then drying can be done under a shed, in a shed or in the attic. This process lasts until the tops are completely dry (usually 1-3 weeks). At this time, the nutrition from the stems and leaves continues to be absorbed by the bulbs and they build up mass. After that, the tops are cut off, leaving tails 2-3 centimeters in size. Spring garlic is often not trimmed, but braided and hung in a dry place.
The dug out garlic is laid out along the garden bed for 2-3 days to dry.
In general, the topic of storing garlic is quite extensive, it is the subject of discussion on forums where many options are offered. Without delving into the jungle, we note one important parameter - the storage temperature of winter garlic should be within + 1-3 ° C, and spring garlic - 16-20 ° C.
Video: a way to store garlic in jars
Garlic business organization
Drawing up a business plan is the initial stage of organizing any business. Careful planning will ensure safe and profitable business operations, as well as protect against possible risks and obstacles. But here, too, everything depends on the scale of the enterprise. It is unlikely that a pensioner has a need to draw up a business plan for growing garlic in his summer cottage. However, for a farm, planning is necessary and inevitable, since it will not be possible to do such a business alone.
Calculation of capital for planting and growing
The business of growing garlic is especially profitable if you own a land plot, since additional capital will be required to rent the land. If your entrepreneurial activity in this direction is just beginning, then it is better to limit yourself to a small area, no more than 1 hectare - it is problematic to process a large area manually. You will have to hire staff, which will also result in additional expenses.
In addition to the land plot, you also need a set (garlic teeth). The market price for seed is 30-200 rubles per 1 kg. The cost depends on the variety of garlic, so when buying seeds, think carefully about what is more important - to save on cheap varieties and get an average yield, or buy the best seed and get a high yield and big profit.
To grow garlic outdoors, you need fertilizer. Feeding plants three times a day during the season will cost 4–5 thousand rubles. Perhaps one or more temporary workers will be needed during planting and harvesting, whose labor will also need to be paid.
If the retail sale of the crop is planned, it is necessary to take care of the warehouse and storage containers. In this regard, it is more profitable to sell products in bulk and immediately, in order to reduce storage costs.
In general, the total initial capital for this business can be 20-40 thousand rubles. It all depends on whether you will hire assistants, or do it yourself, whether you need to rent a warehouse, and other work moments. For industrial cultivation of crops in the open field, registration of a farm is required, and this is a completely different investment.
You should take into account the costs of such organizational issues:
- business registration
- land lease
- purchase of equipment, inventory
- mineral additives and fertilizers
- warehouse rental
- hiring personnel and paying for their labor.
In this case, the size of the initial capital will depend on the scale of outdoor garlic cultivation. An approximate calculation of fertilizers and seed is presented above using the example of an area of 1 hectare, plus the costs of solving organizational issues.
The technology of growing garlic on an industrial scale involves strict adherence to certain rules at each stage of the growing season of the crop.
The most important conditions for obtaining an elite harvest are:
- Determination of the correct position in the crop rotation.
- The optimal choice of planting material (taking into account the climatic conditions of a particular region)
- Appropriate use of agrotechnical methods in the fight against pests and diseases.
- Immediate harvest at the most favorable time.