Plant daisy (Latin Bellis) represents a genus of perennials of the family Astrovye, or Compositae, numbering 14 species. In nature, daisy flowers grow in the Mediterranean. From ancient Greek margarites translates as "pearl", this is a figurative and very apt name for small white flowers of a wild daisy. The Latin name was given to the flower by Pliny, and it means "beautiful, beautiful".
In some countries, the flower is called the "eye of the day" because it opens at sunrise. In English it sounds like "day ah", and the inhabitants of foggy Albion began to affectionately call the daisy by the diminutive name of Daisy. And German girls wondered with daisies, as with daisies, picking off their petals, which is why the daisy-daisy is called in Germany “the measure of love”.
The incredible popularity of daisies is the reason for the emergence of many legends and legends about them, but what to say! - these little flowers almost never went out of fashion, because blooming daisies are really a beautiful and cozy sight.
Planting and caring for daisies
- Landing: sowing seeds into the ground - in June, sowing seeds for seedlings - in February or March, transplanting seedlings into the ground - in late May or early June.
- Bloom: April May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or light partial shade.
- The soil: cultivated, well-drained, humus-rich loam.
- Watering: regular, moderate.
- Top dressing: in early spring and before flowering with liquid complex fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seeds, dividing the bush, cuttings.
- Pests: ticks, mice.
- Diseases: viral and mycoplasma infections, powdery mildew.
Read more about growing daisies below.
Daisies are small herbaceous plants with a short rhizome, blunt spatulate crenate basal leaves, and a leafless stem on which one head is formed. On a conical receptacle, female ligulate flowers of white or pink develop, the middle flowers are bisexual, tubular, yellow. The inflorescences of daisies grown in culture can be simple, double or semi-double, they can also vary in size. The daisy fruit is a flattened achene without a tuft.
Growing daisies from seeds
How to sow seeds
Species daisies reproduce well in a generative way. Daisies are sown with seeds in June, without covering them directly into the moist soil, but only lightly sprinkling them with sand or sifted humus, since the seeds need sunlight and a temperature of about 20 ºC for germination. Under such conditions, the first shoots can be expected in a week. If you cover the unsealed crops with a transparent film, the embryos are activated, and the planting depth will no longer matter - the seedlings will appear anyway. After two days, the film can be removed, and the crops can be lightly sprinkled with soil.
Seedlings develop very quickly, so soon they will need a pick, which is carried out directly into the open ground according to the 20x20 scheme. Daisies from seeds will bloom only next spring, since this year they will only have time to grow rosettes from leaves. Daisy also reproduces by self-sowing - in the spring you will only have to thin out the seedlings, removing weak or unhealthy seedlings, but with such independent reproduction over the years, the inflorescences become smaller and lose varietal qualities.
Many people prefer to grow daisies in seedlings. They do this in order to make them bloom already this year. Seeds are sown in February or March in individual containers so as not to injure the seedlings when diving. A nutritious structured soil, which is sold in flower shops, is suitable as a substrate. Seeds are sown according to the same rules as in open ground, and the same conditions are created for crops - a temperature of about 20 ºC and bright light.
When shoots appear, the temperature is lowered to 12-15 ºC. Be prepared to provide additional lighting for the seedlings, since the optimal day length for their normal development is 12-14 hours, and at this time of the year the days are still too short.
Planting daisies outdoors
When to plant
Daisies love the sun, so the area where you plant the seedlings should be light. As for the soil, daisies are not capricious: any garden soil will do, but daisies grow best on light structured loams, unless the site is in a lowland where melt or rain water can stagnate - daisies cannot tolerate excess moisture in the roots. Daisy seedlings are planted outdoors in late May or early June.
How to plant
Planting daisies in the ground is carried out with an earthen lump. Make small holes at a distance of 20 cm from each other and place the seedlings in them in a transfer method so as not to injure the roots of young plants, then tamp the earth tightly around the bushes and water them abundantly with water.
Caring for daisies in the garden
Growing daisies does not require extra effort from you, it consists in watering, loosening the soil, weeding and feeding the plants. Since the root system of daisies is shallow, watering the plants must be regular, otherwise, due to a lack of moisture, their inflorescences become small, and terry varieties lose this quality. After watering, you need to carefully loosen the soil around the plants to improve aeration of the roots.
If you mulch an area with daisies, you do not have to loosen the soil and fight weeds too often, and you will be able to water the daisies less often, since mulch prevents moisture in the soil from evaporating too quickly. In addition, mulch is a prophylaxis against such a phenomenon as root bulging, which occurs as a result of drying out of the top layer of the soil.
As for dressings, they must be applied at least twice a season. 1 m² will need 25-30 g of complex fertilizer for flowering plants with microelements. Be sure to also remove wilted daisies to prolong flowering and ensure quality.
Reproduction of daisies
In addition to the seed method of reproduction of daisies in garden floriculture, methods of vegetative propagation are also used - division of the bush and cuttings. Vegetative methods are needed primarily in order to preserve valuable varieties of daisies, the flowers of which begin to shrink with age and lose their decorative effect.
The bushes are usually divided in late summer or early autumn, although this can be done in spring. The bush is dug up and divided into 4-6 parts, after pinching all the formed flowers and buds, cutting off all the leaves from the petioles and shortening the roots to 5-8 cm in order to increase the ability of the cuttings to take root in a new place. Then the cuttings are planted in the ground, where they take root very quickly and continue flowering. If any division turns out to be without roots, there is nothing wrong with that: plant it in the ground, and new roots will grow from the base of the leaf cuttings of the daisy.
When grafting in the same time period with a sharp knife, side shoots with leaves are separated from the bush of daisies and planted on beds with loose soil, where they take root within two weeks. Daisies from cuttings will bloom next year.
Pests and diseases
Small daisies are surprisingly rarely affected by both pests and diseases, however, the danger of being affected by a viral disease still exists: sometimes at the beginning of summer, the plants begin to stretch out pedicels, the inflorescences become small, and the leaves shrink and turn pale. If you notice such changes, you must immediately burn the diseased specimens along with the root system, and disinfect the place where they grew with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
There are cases of disease of daisies with powdery mildew, from which white or grayish loose bloom spreads over the leaves and flowers. You can destroy the fungus by treating all plants on the site with a solution of colloidal sulfur, Topaz or Bordeaux mixture, and it is better to remove and burn diseased specimens or their affected parts.
Sometimes daisies suffer from ticks that are killed by insecticide treatments such as Karbofos or Actellic. Daisies are also harmed by mice, which can be fought by spreading bait with poison on the site. Despite these troubles, which may not happen to your flowers with proper care, planting and caring for daisies can be considered more pleasure than work, especially since daisies will thank you for long and beautiful flowering for a little effort.
Perennial daisy after flowering
How and when to collect seeds
Daisy seeds do not all ripen at the same time, so they need to be harvested as they ripen - 1-2 times a week. Tear off the wilted basket inflorescences until the ripe seeds are washed off by rain or water when watering, shake the seeds onto paper, dry them in a well-ventilated room, and then pour them into a paper bag and store in a dry place.
Preparing for winter
In autumn, mulch the area with a thick layer of sawdust, humus, peat or some other material that will protect the surface root system of plants from freezing in the absence of snow. The mulch layer should be at least 8 cm. The need for mulching the soil increases if you notice that some bushes are sticking out of the ground, exposing the roots. Do not forget to transplant such specimens in the spring to a new place at a normal depth.
Types and varieties
In culture, two types of daisies are grown - annual and perennial. Planting and caring for perennial daisies is not much different from growing annual daisies, but there are still differences. Annual daisies (Bellis annua) grown mainly in rockeries or as indoor plants to decorate balconies and terraces. Perennial daisies are more in demand in culture, which is why breeding work on the development of new varieties was carried out with perennial plants of this genus.
Perennial daisy (Bellis perennis)
A plant with a height of 10 to 30 cm with oblong-ovate or spatulate leaves, collected in a basal rosette. Numerous pubescent leafless peduncles from 15 to 30 cm in height appear in the second year after sowing. Inflorescences are baskets of red, white or pink color up to 8 cm in diameter with large tubular or ligulate flowers along the periphery and small, golden-yellow tubular flowers in the middle. Perennial daisy seeds are flat, oval, small. This species gives abundant self-seeding, which can be used as seedlings.
According to the structure of inflorescences, perennial daisy varieties are divided into reed and tubular, both groups are represented by varieties with both simple and double, as well as with semi-double inflorescences. Simple inflorescences have one to three rows of colored tubular or ligulate flowers and a disc of small yellow tubular flowers in the center. Semi-double flowers have four rows of ligulate colored flowers and a yellow center of small tubular flowers.
Double inflorescences consist of a large number of colored ligulate flowers that almost completely hide the yellow center of tubular flowers. By size, the inflorescences are divided into small (from 2 to 4 cm in diameter), medium (from 4 to 6 cm) and large, reaching more than 6 cm in diameter. The best varieties of perennial daisies:
- Robella - large double inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter with dense pinkish-salmon inflorescences of rolled tubular flowers. This variety received a gold medal at the Fleroselect competition;
- Rob Roy - a miniature plant with red inflorescences 1-2 cm in diameter;
- Bella Daisy - An early blooming daisy with a double basket 2-2.5 cm in diameter, bright pink, also awarded with the Fleroselect award;
- Pomponette - a daisy with small pompom inflorescences that look like buttons.
Recently, a whole series of varieties of daisies have appeared, united by common features, but differing in the color of the inflorescences. Among them, the most attractive for gardeners are:
- Tasso series - daisies on short stems with very dense double pompom-shaped inflorescences of tubular flowers up to 4 cm in diameter in red, pink, white, salmon pink, and also pale pink with a darker middle;
- Speedstar series - a variety that blooms in the year of sowing with semi-double flowers of carmine and white color with a bright yellow center, and in the pink variety, the yellow center is surrounded by a white rim;
- Rominette series - Dense double daisies with a diameter of 2 cm in white, red, carmine pink and pale pink. The height of the bush is about 15 cm.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Asteraceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
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