Autumn is a bountiful time of fruits, when trees and bushes seem to be dripping with beautiful berries — great for both wildlife and keen foragers. Some of these berries are safe for humans to eat, although a few do need to be cooked first. Care must be taken as there are some safe fruits which can be easily mixed up with poisonous ones. If in doubt of plant identification, do not forage.
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Not all the trees in this guide are native to Ireland, but most are. Our island has a small suite of native trees compared with continental Europe. The meticulous classification of each species in the old Gaelic Brehon laws shows that our culture has traditionally treasured each one of them, but today many of us struggle to recognise these species.
With luck this guide, kindly supported by Gas Networks Ireland, will help you begin to pick out some of them. For an Irish-language version, click here.
As most of our native trees are deciduous — that is, they shed their leaves every autumn — such species have a distinctly different appearance in winter and summer. Once you learn to ask yourself some key questions, identification becomes easier. What shape and colour is the leaf? Does it have sharp teeth, curving lobes or smooth edges? Is it simple, which is to say with a single leaf on a stalk, like an oak?
Or is it compound, with several leaflets on a stalk, like an ash? Are the leaves hairy? Tree flowers are sometimes tiny or inconspicuous, and some trees do not flower until they are relatively mature, but they can also provide valuable clues to identity.
Do the flowers appear before the leaves, as with hazel? Or do they come afterwards, like oak? The colour and patterns of bark, the distinctive features of twigs and buds, and of course the general shape and size of the whole tree all help, too, as does habitat. The trees in these illustrations appear in scale to one another; the leaf illustrations are larger, and out of scale, to aid identification. Alder woodlands thrive on wet soils beside lakes and rivers. Wind-pollinated flowers appear before leaves.
The male catkins are reddish; the fertilised female cones produce wind-dispersed seeds. The bark is dark brown. Buds, on hairless twigs, are often mauve.
Leaves, which emerge in April, are heart-shaped, toothed and hairless, with tips unpointed or indented. The timber is hard and water-resistant; it turns reddish when cut. Grows up to 20m tall. Ash is both the most common tree in Irish hedgerows and a woodland species. It grows best in nonacid, well-drained sites. Twigs are grey with black buds. Dark, wind-pollinated flowers appear in spring long before leaves, which emerge very late, at the end of May. Its compound leaves have up to 13 leaflets.
The seeds, known as keys, remain hanging long after the leaves fall. They are winged, for wind dispersal. Ash supports 41 insect species.
Hurleys are made from its timber, but this species is threatened by die-back. Grows up to 40m tall, although it is usually much smaller. Hazel forms an understorey in deciduous woodlands and in hazel-dominated woods on limestone soils. The twigs have greenish-brown buds.
Catkins appear long before leaves, usually in February but sometimes as early as late December. The male catkins are long and pale yellow, and they hang down, swinging in the wind. Their pollen is wind blown to the tiny budlike female flowers, which have red centres.
These develop the hazelnuts early in autumn, two or three together, which turn brown as they ripen. The simple, round leaves with pointed tips, which appear in April, are particularly soft and downy, with hairs on both sides. Squirrels, jays, rooks and mice collect the nuts, storing them for winter food. Grows up to 15m tall. Holly is an evergreen that grows naturally as an understorey in oak woodlands but becomes much taller when standing alone.
Each tree is male or female. Both carry small, creamy flowers in May, but only male flowers contain pollen-producing stamens. This pollen is carried to the female flowers by honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. Their leaves are shiny, with wavy edges and prickles on the lower branches, but on the upper branches of older trees the leaves are flat, with smooth edges and no prickles.
Native to the Balkans, this tree was brought to Ireland in the s to the great estates. Widespread now, it is much loved. The large brown sticky buds open in March, making it one of the earliest trees to come into leaf. Up to seven leaflets radiate from the stalk.
By May the tree is covered with large candles of many white flowers. Pollinating bees make very fine honey from their nectar.
The prickly green fruit forms by midsummer, containing the chestnuts, aka conkers, that ripen in autumn to a shiny mahogany colour. Grows up to 30m tall. Rowan, or mountain ash, occurs naturally on rocky ground in upland areas. It has a smooth grey bark and grey-brown twigs with buds alternating along them.
The compound leaves, opening in April, have up to 15 toothed leaflets. Wide flat-topped clusters of creamy-white flowers in May are insect pollinated. Bunches of scarlet berries in early autumn are prized by thrushes, which will defend their very own rowan tree against all comers.
Grows up to 19m tall. Despite its name, the tall, handsome Scots pine is a native Irish species. Our mountainsides were covered in Scots pine woodlands up to 5, years ago, when colder, wetter weather then caused them to be replaced by blanket bogs. Older trees have a bare trunk with a flat crown of foliage and an orange-red bark. An evergreen conifer, it has as its leaves long needles that are borne in pairs on short shoots.
Its cones need two years to mature. Green at first, they turn brown and open when ripe, allowing the small single-winged seeds to be carried away by the wind. These seeds are also the favourite food of the red squirrel.
Grows up to 35m tall. The sessile oak, so-called because its acorns have no stalks but sit directly on the twig, forms semi-natural woodlands on poor acid soils in, among other places, Co Wicklow, Co Donegal, and Killarney, in Co Kerry. Buds are borne on brownish twigs with three or four terminal buds clustered together.
Catkin flowers are produced in early April, the wind blowing the pollen from the males to the females. The characteristic lobed leaves appear in early May.
The acorns, which ripen in autumn, are collected to be stored as winter food by squirrels, rooks and jays. Oaks support a huge variety of biodiversity — species of invertebrate have been associated with them.
Grows up to 37m tall. One of two native birches, this elegant tree has drooping, hairless twigs. It has triangular simple leaves, with long slender tips. Male and female flowers, on separate catkins, emerge with the leaves in April. The female catkins are pollinated by the wind, and their small seeds are also wind dispersed. They are popular with seed-eating birds, such as the siskin and the redpoll, and the tree is associated with insect species.
Its bark — very pale and cream-coloured, with dark, almost black patches — gives it its name. This is the larger of our two native cherry species, often found in deciduous woodland.
It is a handsome tree, with shining purple-grey bark. Its simple, oval-shaped leaves, hairy on the underside, appear in early April. These are followed by pale pink or white flowers, a source of pollen and nectar for insects.
The edible dark-red cherries appear in summer and are eaten by pine martens as well as by many birds. The leaves turn red-gold in autumn. The wych elm is more resistant to Dutch elm disease than the introduced English elm, which was more or less wiped out by it in recent times. Flowers appear in spring, before the leaves.
They are reddish clusters, borne directly on the twigs, but are not obvious until they mature into pale green seeds that ripen and then fall off. The leaves, which are rough, like sandpaper, to the touch, are oval, with toothed margins and a distinct tip. An evergreen, formerly much more widespread than it is now, as many place names show, the yew once formed great woodlands. Trees are either male or female. The males bear small cones with pollen that is blown by the wind to fertilise the flowers on the female trees.
The fruits are scarlet fleshy berries. In a mutant form was discovered in Co Fermanagh with upright branches and, as it was female, red berries.
How to Identify Fruit Trees by Leaf
Another native tree that is commonly planted along our streets and in our parks, the Sea Almond Terminalia catappa is a coastal species that can be found naturally along the seashores and in the mangroves of Singapore. This tree is semi-deciduous, and sheds its leaves twice a year. As the leaves wither, they turn from green into a mix of red, orange and yellow, giving an autumnal feel to our tropical city. The Sea Almond can also be identified by its pagoda shape, due to the regularly-spaced tiered branches on its trunk, and its large buttresses. The large white or pink trumpet-shaped flowers of the Trumpet Tree are usually produced twice a year after a dry spell.
A toothed leaf refers to a leaf that has an irregularly notched margin dark brown. Fruit: Alder Trees produce small winged seeds as fruits.
Tree Identification by Bark, Leaf, Flower and Seeds Colorado Rocky Mountains
Click on any image to see it enlarged. Then use your browser's Back button to return to the key. Leaves alternate: go to 2. Leaves opposite: go toLeaves pinnately to palmately lobed or very coarsely toothed: go to 3. Leaves unlobed but sometimes with a finely toothed margin: go to 8. Leaves palmately lobed: go to 4. Leaves pinnately lobed or coarsely toothed, fruit an acorn: go to key of oaks. Leaves only in part palmately lobed leaves variable on the same tree from unlobed to mitten-shaped : go to 5.
A Fruit Tree Disease Diagnosis Model Based on Stacking Ensemble Learning
It's exciting to move to a new property with pre-existing trees and plants. You don't necessarily want to hold off until summer — when the fruits make fruit tree identification much easier — to find out what kind of fruit tree you have, however. To get a great harvest from these trees, you'll need to give them appropriate care each season. Discover what kind of fruit tree you have by inspecting its bark, leaves, buds and flowers in order to appropriately prune its branches, fertilize its roots and spray it top to bottom for pests. The sheer variety of fruit trees in the world is astounding, but if you live in the United States, you're most likely to encounter trees with edible fruits that fall into one of three main categories: pome fruits, stone fruits and citrus fruits.
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Leaf Identification Key
If you've ever wondered what type of tree was nearby but didn't have a guide book, a new smartphone app allows users with no formal training to satisfy their curiosity and contribute to science at the same time. Scientists have developed the first mobile app to identify plants by simply photographing a leaf. The free iPhone and iPad app, called Leafsnap, instantly searches a growing library of leaf images amassed by the Smithsonian Institution. In seconds, it returns a likely species name, high-resolution photographs and information on the tree's flowers, fruit, seeds and bark. Users make the final identification and share their findings with the app's growing database to help map the population of trees one mobile phone at a time. It has been downloaded more than , times in the first month, and its creators expect it to continue to grow as it expands to Android phones.
How to Identify An Apple Tree
Trees benefit people economically, socially, and ecologically. They provide shade on hot days, the paper and wood products that we use every day, and food and clean water for wildlife and humans alike. Trees also make up a large portion of the foliage in our yards and landscapes, creating a beautiful mosaic of colors, shapes, and sizes. There are many reasons people want to learn how to identify trees. You might be a naturalist who would like to know what tree species comprise a nearby natural area, a vacationer interested in identifying a beautiful tree you saw along a trail, or an aspiring dendrologist a scientist who specializes in tree identification.
This presentation will focus on using leaves for tree identification. Fruit: Horseshoe-shaped with wings almost parallel, maturing in autumn, sometimes.
How to identify trees
Scientific classification or taxonomy is the ordering and ranking of organisms into groups having common characteristics. Scientists classify organisms to bring order and efficiency to data storage and information. Nomenclature is the assignment of names to organisms. In distinguishing between tree species we use common or vernacular names and scientific names - genus and species.
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There are many different types of fruit tress that you can plant in your own garden or even grow in pots. If you look for low-maintenance fruit trees, choose self-pollinating or self-fertile fruit trees. Self-pollinating fruit trees include varieties such as nectarines, apricots, peaches, and sour cherries. You can also choose fast growing fruit trees such as apples, peaches and nectarines. You can also decide to grow fruit trees in pots if they are dwarf trees. Dwarf citrus is also very popular fruit tree to grow in pots or containers.
Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! Most fruit trees have leaves that alternate sides along the stem.
Vocabulary list with Fruit - Learning English Online with pictures Later this year, Apple will roll out a technology that will allow the company to detect and report known child sexual abuse material to law enforcement in a way it says will preserve user privacy. Found in Rhode Island yearList of Plant Pictures by Common Name. A firm and juicy apple that ranges from dark red to deep purple, William's Pride , one of the older disease-resistant varieties, is great for eating fresh. A 'Winesap' apple tree grows best in USDA zones 5 There are many types of worms, but those that we commonly encounter in our gardens are earthworms. All are in the bird family Columbidae and share a range of traits, including a round body shape, delicate bill, and generally granivorous or frugivorous diets. Apples very well might be the perfect fruit.
Fruit trees are best identified by the leaves, seeds and fruit. Many find it easiest to identify fruit trees by investigating the fruit, but some trees will bear flowers but no fruit while other only have leaves. Remember, a fruit tree does not have to be a tree, per se. Many fruits grow in small shrubs or on vines.