A munoz landscape construction inc

A munoz landscape construction inc

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Louis, Missouri. This historic park lies in south-western Illinois between East St. Louis and Collinsville. At its apex around CE, the city covered about 6 square miles 16 km 2 and included about manmade earthen mounds in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and functions.

Cahokia was the largest and most influential urban settlement of the Mississippian culture , which developed advanced societies across much of what is now the central and southeastern United States, beginning more than 1, years before European contact. Cahokia Mounds is a National Historic Landmark and a designated site for state protection. The largest prehistoric earthen construction in the Americas north of Mexico, [5] the site is open to the public and administered by the Illinois Historic Preservation Division and supported by the Cahokia Mounds Museum Society.

Although some evidence exists of occupation during the Late Archaic period around BCE in and around the site, [11] Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around CE during the Late Woodland period.

Mound building at this location began with the emergent Mississippian cultural period, about the 9th century CE. The city's complex construction of earthen mounds required excavation, movement by hand using woven baskets, and construction involving 55 million cubic feet of earth, much of which was accomplished over a matter of just decades.

Its highly planned ceremonial plazas sited around the mounds with homes for thousands connected by laid out pathways and courtyards suggest the location served as a central religious pilgrimage city. The city's original name is unknown. The mounds were later named after the Cahokia tribe , a historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 17th century.

Most likely, multiple indigenous ethnic groups settled in the Cahokia Mounds area during the time of the city's apex. Historian Daniel Richter notes that the apex of the city occurred during the Medieval Warming Period. This period appears to have fostered an agricultural revolution in upper North America, as the three-fold crops of maize , beans legumes , and gourds squash were developed and adapted or bred to the temperate climates of the north from their origins in Mesoamerica.

Richter also notes that Cahokia's advanced development coincided with the development in the Southwest of the Chaco Canyon society, which also produced large-scale works in an apparent socially stratified society. The decline of the city coincides with the Little Ice Age , although by then, the three-fold agriculture remained well-established throughout temperate North America. Cahokia became the most important center for the people known today as Mississippians.

Cahokia was located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri , and Illinois Rivers. It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creek chert , [19] and whelk shells. Mill Creek chert, most notably, was used in the production of hoes, a high demand tool for farmers around Cahokia and other Mississippian centers.

Cahokia's control of the manufacture and distribution of these hand tools was an important economic activity that allowed the city to thrive. Bartering, not money, was used in trade. At the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico and Central America. Although it was home to only about 1, people before circa , its population grew rapidly after that date.

According to a study in Quaternary Science Reviews , "Between AD and , Cahokia's population increased from between 1, and 2, people to between 10, and 15, people". In the early 21st century, new residential areas were found to the west of Cahokia as a result of archeological excavations, increasing estimates of area population. One of the major problems that large centers like Cahokia faced was keeping a steady supply of food.

A related problem was waste disposal for the dense population, and Cahokia became unhealthy from polluted waterways. Because it was such an unhealthy place to live, Snow believes that the town had to rely on social and political attractions to bring in a steady supply of new immigrants; otherwise, the town's death rate would have caused it to be abandoned earlier.

The population of Cahokia began to decline during the 13th century, and the site was eventually abandoned by aroundHowever, more recent research suggests that there is no evidence of human-caused erosion or flooding at Cahokia. Political and economic problems may also have been responsible for the site's decline.

Another possible cause is invasion by outside peoples, though the only evidence of warfare found are the defensive wooden stockade and watchtowers that enclosed Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct. There is no other evidence for warfare, so the palisade may have been more for ritual or formal separation than for military purposes. Diseases transmitted among the large, dense urban population are another possible cause of decline. Many theories since the late 20th century propose conquest-induced political collapse as the primary reason for Cahokia's abandonment.

Together with these factors, researchers found evidence in of major floods at Cahokia, so severe as to flood dwelling places. Analysis of sediment from beneath Horseshoe Lake has revealed that two major floods occurred in the period of settlement at Cahokia, in roughly — and — The original site contained earthen mounds over an area of 6 square miles 16 km 2 , of which 80 remain today.

To achieve that, thousands of workers over decades moved more than an estimated 55 million cubic feet [1,, m 3 ] of earth in woven baskets to create this network of mounds and community plazas. Monks Mound , for example, covers 14 acres 5. Monks Mound is the largest structure and central focus of the city: a massive platform mound with four terraces, 10 stories tall, it is the largest man-made earthen mound north of Mexico. Facing south, it is ft 30 m high, ft m long, ft m wide and coversMonks Mounds was named for the community of Trappist monks who resided there for a short time, after Euroamericans settled in the area.

Excavation on the top of Monks Mound has revealed evidence of a large building, likely a temple or the residence of the paramount chief , which would have been seen throughout the city.

This building was about ft 32 m long and 48 feet 15 m wide, and could have been as much as 50 ft 15 m high. It was about 5, sq ft m 2. The east and northwest sides of Monks Mound were twice excavated in August during an attempt to avoid erosion due to slumping. These areas were repaired to preserve the mound.

Early in its history, Cahokia underwent a massive construction boom. Along with the early phase of Monks Mound, an overarching urban layout was established at the site.

It was built with a symbolic quadripartite worldview and oriented toward the four cardinal directions with the main east-west and north-south axes defined with Monks Mound near its center point. Four large plazas were established to the east, west, north, and south of Monks Mound.

To the south of Monks Mound is the Grand Plaza, a large area that covered roughly 50 acres 20 ha and measured over 1, ft m in length by over ft m in width. Researchers originally thought the flat, open terrain in this area reflected Cahokia's location on the Mississippi's alluvial flood plain , but instead soil studies have shown that the landscape was originally undulating ridge and swale topography.

In one of the earliest large-scale construction projects, the site had been expertly and deliberately leveled and filled by the city's inhabitants. It is part of the sophisticated engineering displayed throughout the site.

The game was played by rolling a disc-shaped chunky stone across the field. The men would throw spears where they thought the chunky stone would land. The game required a great deal of judgment and aim. The major ceremonial north-south 'axis' connects the main precinct with the large ridgetop mortuary mound to its south now known as the Rattlesnake Mound Mound 66 [48].

The feature, named the Rattlesnake Causeway by archaeologists, was an elevated embankment about 18 metres 59 ft wide, roughly metres 2, ft in length and varies in height from 0. This is thought to have had symbolic associations to the builders in connection with their lunar maize goddess of the underworld.

The causeway itself may have been seen as a symbolic "Path of Souls". The high-status central district of Cahokia was surrounded by a 2-mi-long palisade that was equipped with protective bastions. A later addition to the site, when the palisade was constructed, it cut through and separated some pre-existing neighborhoods. Its bastions showed that it was mainly built for defensive purposes.

Beyond Monks Mound, as many as more mounds stood at varying distances from the city center. To date, mounds have been located, 68 of which are in the park area. The mounds are divided into three different types: platform , conical , and ridge -top. Each appeared to have had its own meaning and function. In general terms, the city center seems to have been laid out in a diamond-shaped pattern about 1 mi 1. During excavation of Mound 72, a ridge-top burial mound south of main urban precinct, archaeologists found the remains of a man in his 40s who was probably an important Cahokian ruler.

The man was buried on a bed of more than 20, marine-shell disc beads arranged in the shape of a falcon , [51] with the bird's head appearing beneath and beside the man's head, and its wings and tail beneath his arms and legs. The falcon warrior or " birdman " is a common motif in Mississippian culture. This burial clearly had powerful iconographic significance. In addition, a cache of sophisticated, finely worked arrowheads in a variety of different styles and materials was found near the grave of this important man.

Separated into four types, each from a different geographical region, the arrowheads demonstrated Cahokia's extensive trade links in North America.

Archeologists recovered more than other skeletons from MoundThe relationship of these burials to the central burial is unclear. They were unlikely to have all deposited at the same time. Wood in several parts of the mound has been radiocarbon-dated to between and CE. Excavations have indicated that Mound 72 was not constructed as a single mound, but rather as a series of smaller mounds.

These mounds were reshaped and covered over to give Mound 72 its final ridge-top shape. Excavations near Mound 34 from to revealed a copper workshop. This unique find was originally discovered in the s by archaeologist Gregory Perino , but its exact location was lost for 60 years. It is the only known copper workshop to be found at a Mississippian culture site. Analysis of copper found during excavations showed that it had been annealed , a technique involving repeatedly heating and cooling the metal as it is worked, as blacksmiths do with iron.

Artisans produced religious items, such as long-nosed god maskettes , ceremonial earrings with a symbolic shape, thought to have been used in fictive kinship rituals. The Cahokia Woodhenge was a series of large timber circles located roughly m 2, ft to the west of Monks Mound. They are thought to have been constructed between and CE, with each one being larger and having 12 more posts than its predecessor. Warren Wittry in the early s interstate highway construction boom.

Although the majority of the site contained village house features, a number of unusually shaped, large post holes were also discovered. When the holes were plotted out, they formed several arcs of equally spaced holes.

He began referring to the circles as "woodhenges", comparing the structures to England's well-known circles at Woodhenge and Stonehenge. Additional excavations in the s—s used predictions based on verified posthole locations and spacing to locate other postholes and confirm the existence of five separate timber circles in the general vicinity.

The circles are now designated Woodhenges I through V in Roman numerals.


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Solorzano Landscape Construction alleged to owe more than $44,000 for contributions

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No Thanks. By Jenie Mallari-Torres Dec 8,According to the complaint, the plaintiffs allege that an audit of the books and records of defendants for the period of January to July revealed non-payment of the contributions to the trust funds, moreover, defendants have refused to pay such amounts and there is now due. The plaintiffs holds Arturo Solorzano Munoz, individually and doing business as Solorzano Landscape Construction, and Solorzano Landscape Construction responsible because the defendants allegedly failed, neglected and refused to make timely fringe benefit contributions as required by the applicable agreements. They are represented by Barry E.

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